PIREP Documents

Project Document

15 National Renewable Energy Assessment Reports

(Cook Is, FSM, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Is, Nauru, Niue, Palau, PNG, Samoa, Solomon Is, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu )

Regional Synthesis of the 15 national reports

Demonstration Projects to showcase the Business Angle of renewable energy service delivery

Financing Mechanisms for financing renewable energy development

Technical Support Programme for renewable energy development

Data Base of demographic, economic, environment and energy data - Workbook 1, 2, 3 & 4

End of Project Evaluation Report

PIGGAREP Documents

Project Brief

Project Document

Inception Report

Mid Term Evaluation Report

Workplans & Budgets
Interim Work Plan and Budget 2012
Inception Phase Work Plan and Budget
2008 Work Plan and Budget
2009 Work Plan and Budget
2010 Work Plan and Budget
2011 Work Plan and Budget
2013-2014 Work Plan (final draft)

Quarterly Progress Reports
Q3 2007 Progress Report
Q4 2007 Progress Report

Q1 2008 Progress Report
Q2 2008 Progress Report
Q3 2008 Progress Report
Q4 2008 Progress Report

Q1 2009 Progress Report
Q2 2009 Progress Report
Q3 2009 Progress Report
Q4 2009 Progress Report

Q1 2010 Progress Report
Q2 2010 Progress Report
Q3 2010 Progress Report
Q4 2010 Progress Report
Q1 2011 Progress Report
Q2 2011 Progress Report
Q3 2011 Progress Report 
Q4 2011 Progress Report

Q1 2012 Progress Report
Q2 2012 Progress Report
Q3 2012 Progress Report

Q1 2013 Progress Report
Q2 2013 Progress Report
Q3 2013 Progress Report
Q4 2013 Progress Report

Q1 2014 Progress Report
Q3 2014 Progress Report
Q4 2014 Progress Report

Annual Progress Reports/Project Implementation Review Reports
2007 - 2008
2008 - 2009
2009 - 2010
2010 - 2011 
2012 (PDF) and (Excel sheet)

Multipartite Review (MPR) Meetings Summary Records 
MPR 2008
MPR 2009
MPR 2010
MPR 2011 
MPR 2012 (63 MB)
MPR 2013
MPR 2014

Project Management Office
PIGGAREP National Coordinators
PIGGAREP Project Board Members
PIGGAREP National Focal Points

Project Activity Summary Template
Quarterly Progressive Reporting Template
Quaterly Reporting Template





Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Regional Interventions

Country drivenness is one the key characteristics of the PIGGAREP. Therefore, the PIGGAREP interventions are country-driven and are country-specific. However, the PIGGAREP is flexible to accommodate priorities, which are common among two or more PICs and which can be more efficiently and cost-effectively delivered as a regional intervention. These include the following:

SIS Capacity Building Workshop on Renewable Energy Technology Applications: 21-25 April 2008, Port Vila, Vanuatu

Background Programme Participants Presentations Outcome & Follow-up


Climate change has been recognized by the Forum Leaders as one of the most serious threats to the Pacific. The Pacific islands have already experienced, and will continue to experience the adverse effects of climate change and these are expected to worsen over the coming decades. For some low lying atoll countries, climate change may even threaten their very existence, as confirmed by the recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, AR4.

It is estimated that for every $10 increase in the price of oil, national incomes for the Federated States of Micronesia and Kiribati reduce by over 4% and by at least 2% in Tonga, Tuvalu, Palau and the Solomon Islands. A meeting of Pacific Energy Ministers held in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, 25-26 April 2007 noted that biofuels of a recognized quality standard could make an important contribution to GHG mitigation and to energy security and sustainable supply. It noted that local biofuel production should be evaluated and progressed where it is economically viable and environmentally sustainable.

At the Sixteenth SIS Leaders' Summit held at Nuku'alofa, Tonga on 15 October 2007, the Summit noted that non-fossil solutions are viable and critical, particularly for the Smaller Island States, which face particular hardships as a result of climate change and sea level rise. SIS Leaders' requested the support of development partners to improve the Pacific access to and affordability of such technology, including through the coordination of efforts at national level and to support the implementation of the priorities identified by Energy Ministers.

The Global Environment Facility, through UNDP, is providing funds through the SPREP-executed Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy (PIGGAREP) to assist SIS in their GHG mitigation effort through renewable energy. At the same time, the government of Taiwan is providing funds through the Smaller Island States Sustainable Solar Initiative (SI3SI) to improve the solar electricity project management skills in the SIS, disseminate the experiences from the RMI Action for the Development of Marshall Is Renewable Energy (ADMIRE) and a consultancy to produce of a TV documentary to highlight and disseminate the successes of renewable energy projects in the SIS, PICs and SIDS.

For the production of the TV documentary, PIGGAREP is also participating in a SPREP-British High Commission Climate Change Film Project (CCFP) which will train and support media professionals, filmmakers and producers from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu to research, develop and produce their own short film on how climate change is affecting their country. Their stories will not only highlight the effects of climate change, but share the inspirational stories about what is being done to reduce its impact, including renewable energy and it productive utilisation.

Through the collaboration between PIGGAREP, SI3SI, CCFP and REEEP , a SIS Capacity Building Workshop on Renewable Energy Technology Applications was held at Port Vila, Vanuatu on the 21st – 25th April 2008.

Workshop Objectives

The objectives of the workshop were:

To strengthen the capacity in the SIS to Productively Utilize Renewable Energy (PURE) services from standalone and grid-connected PV, wind and biofuel through the sharing of RE experiences, and

To enable SIS to observe and to learn from the biofuel and wind power developments as well as the RE developments in Australia and other PICs

A Workshop Report was produced including an evaluation of the event by the participants.

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Vanuatu Interventions

Vanuatu is mostly mountainous, of volcanic origin with narrow coastal plains. About 41% of all land is cultivable with 14% utilised. Total land area is 12,200 km 2 with 65 islands populated of 80 total. Between the 1989 and 1999 censuses, population grew at 2.6% per year reaching 212,000 in 2004, of whom about 27% lived in the urban centres of Port Vila and Luganville, and 80% on seven islands.

Vanuatu has a classic dual economy: a small, high-cost modern sector and subsistence/small-scale agriculture and fishing with most ni-Vanuatu largely outside the cash economy. Nearly 80% of the population engage in subsistence agriculture contributing only 10% to GDP.

Vanuatu is overwhelmingly dependent on imported petroleum for commercial energy. Biomass probably provides over 50% of gross national energy production, and solar and hydro together less than 1%. Petroleum imports vary considerably year-by-year but were about 47 million litres in 2003, growing at 4% annually over the previous decade. Between 1999 and 2002, petroleum imports were equivalent to between 56-86% of domestic exports, considerably more than the early 1980s (30-60%) when oil prices were of serious concern to the government. Recent Port Vila wholesale prices of gasoline and distillate (excluding taxes and duties) are slightly higher than average for the PIC region.

Overall, 61% of urban households are electrified, 36% use kerosene for lighting and 53% cook mainly with LPG. O nly about 7% of rural households are electrified, 86% light with kerosene, and over 95% cook with wood. About 106 kilotonnes of fuelwood are consumed per annum for cooking.

For estimating growth in energy use and GHG emissions, it is assumed that population will grow 2.6% annually, real GDP about 2.8% and petroleum fuel use 3.5%. GHG emissions from petroleum fuels would increase from about 110 gigagrammes in 2003 to 156 Gg in 2013, a 41% increase. In principle, by 2013 Vanuatu could reduce annual emissions by about 94 Gg per year, about 85% of current emissions from energy use, ignoring some practical economic, financial, political, social, technical, and environmental constraints. Achievable reductions if barriers to RE were removed would be considerably less. The bulk of potential reductions are from biofuels, with very little from PV or wind energy, even if these were pursued on a large scale.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for Vanuatu will build on 4 key initiatives: (1) The Sarakata Hydro Project , (2) The joint Energy Unit and UNELCO EU ACP Energy Facility-funded projects on bio-fuel, (3) The VANREPA's EU ACP Energy Facility-funded project on wind and (4) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy

1) The Sarakata Hydro Project
Sarakata has two 300 kW turbine generators, installed in 1994 and 1995, that supplied 70% of the electricity to Luganville, Santo in 1995. Growth in demand has made it impossible for the hydro generators to meet the peak demand, hence this 3rd phase to install a new 600 kW hydraulic turbine generator. This project will benefit the approx 20,000 residents of Santo.

The Sarakata project is owned by the GoV. The project is managed by the Power Utility (UNELCO). UNELCO pays GoV the equivalent of the price of oil saved from generating from hydro at Sarakata. This money goes to the Sarakata Fund which is specifically used to support other rural electrification projects, solar PV and grid-extension, in Vanuatu.

In preparation for the growing demand for electricity in Luganville, PIGGAREP will support the further assessment of the potential downstream and the conduct of a feasibility study which will include risks assessment. The support will also include building the general awareness of the surrounding communities about hydro, it benefits, how to avoid potential disasters and how they can help to look after the hydropower project system.

2) The joint Energy Unit and UNELCO EU ACP Energy Facility-funded projects on bio-fuel
On 17 July 2007, the European Commission approved the final selection of proposals that will benefit from grant co-funding from the ACP-EU Energy Facility. From the entire PICs, Vanuatu was the only country with proposals to be funded from this facility. Three out of the four approved projects were joint Energy Unti-UNELCO projects. These include the provision of renewable energy using locally produced copra oil as biofuel to: (1) 4 villages of North East Malekula island, Malampa Province, (2) 3 villages in Ambae Island, Penama Province, and (3) 2 villages of Vanua Lava island, Torba Province.

At Malampa, the project will bring energy to 660 households, 6 primary schools and one College, 2 dispensaries, in the villages of Lavalsal, Vao, Orap and Wala in the North East of Malekula Island. This will increase the rate of access to electricity from 6.8% to 7.8%.

At Ambae, the project will bring energy to 185 households, 1 primary schools, a branch of the University of the South Pacific (USP), 1 hospital and 1 dispensary, in the villages of Saratamata, Lolowai and Longana in East Ambae. This will increase the rate of access to electricity from 6.8% to 7.1%.

At Torba, the project will bring electricity to 103 households, 2 primary schools, 1 college, 1 dispensary, in the villages of Sola and Mosine on Vanua Lava Island in the TORBA Province.

PIGGAREP will support these projects with studies to look at the sustainability of UNELCO's copra oil supply line including potential value-added products and the environment impacts of its bio-fuel production and use. This study will also look at potential financial risks to UNELCO's copra oil effort and identify mechanisms which could be used to stabilize copra oil prices. Given UNELCO's 25% RE goal and its current and future RE programmes (as well as others' in Vanuatu), PIGGAREP will support a study of the potential benefits of registering these as CDM projects and building the local capacity to effectively manage CDM projects.

3) The VANREPA's EU ACP Energy Facility-funded project on wind
The Answer is Blowing in the Wind – Improving access to energy services for the communities of Futuna & Aneityum Islands (Vanuatu) using wind technology is the fourth Vanuatu project to be approved for funding under the EU-ACP Energy Facility. The main activities of the project will focus on: i) the installation of wind turbines at key public institutions at communities in Futuna and Aneityum, installation of battery banks with sufficient capacity to enable households to recharge batteries, ii) the establishment of an island focused Renewable Energy Service Cooperative (RESCoop) for the management and maintenance of the systems on both Futuna & Aneityum Islands, iii) the setting up of a billing system for the delivery of energy and the rental of efficient lighting kits and recharge battery 'tokens' to households, aimed at sustaining the RESCoop, iv) the training of selected members on the operation, maintenance, financial management of the installed systems as well as potential energy uses and sustainable energy consumption, and v) the identification and promotion of new opportunities and income-generating activities, training of would-be local entrepreneurs. The final direct beneficiaries are over 1,100 people. Approx. 237 households, 4 schools, several kindergartens, 5 health centres (dispensaries), community governing offices, tourism, fishing and handicraft cooperatives, business centres with access to energy from this project.

PIGGAREP will support VANREPA's wind project in the areas of awareness and the support and identification of income generating opportunities.

PIGGAREP will also provide support to establishing an environment which is conducive to investments on RE in Vanuatu. As such, the Electricity Act will be reviewed to allow private generators to come in and generate RE and sell to the grid. An annual RE and EE programme will be conducted to give due recognition to achievements and innovative ideas in these two areas.

4) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy
The total project cost budgeted under the agreement between the Government of Italy and the Government of Vanuatu is One Million US Dollars (USD 1 million). The Vanuatu project comprises of three components namely:

  • Rehabilitation of solar systems in schools and health clinics in Malekula and Santo;
  • The development of the Talise hydro project; and
  • The installation of wind monitoring equipment in each of the six provinces in Vanuatu.

The Government of Vanuatu has acknowledged that the 1 million is insufficient to complete all the three components above, especially with the hydro needing a bigger portion. The Government of Vanuatu had highlighted that the funding provided by the Italy will be used to leverage additional funds to complete the hydro project.

PIGGAREP will support Vanuatu by preparing the call for tender for the conduct of the feasibility study on the Talise Hydro Project. It will also assist with the scoping and consultations missions relating to this project.

PIGGAREP and IUCN will jointly fund a national coordinator at Vanuatu to look after both projects. This is seen as assisting with strengthening national capacity, supporting the complementary of effort at both the national and regional levels, ensuring the country drivenness and ownership of both effort and maximizing the benefits from donor resources.

Letters of Confirmation 
Technical site and CB Talise hydro
Social aspects of Vanuatu hydro project

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Tuvalu Interventions

Tuvalu lies about 1100 km due north of Fiji centred at about 8° South Latitude and 177° E :longitude. The EEZ is 900,000 km 2 in area. The total land area of 26 km 2 is spread over eight islands. The largest, Vaitupu, has an area of about 5.6 km 2 while the smallest, Niulakita, has only 0.42 km 2 of land. Growth has been slow with the 1990 population 9,043 and the 2002 population 9,300.

Tuvalu ranks third among the Pacific developing member countries of the ADB in the Human Poverty Index. The primary problem for Tuvalu's economic development is its small size and its isolation. The Tuvalu Trust Fund provides over 10% of the Government budget.

The Electricity supply includes 2.4 MW of capacity on Funafuti, 260 kW of capacity on Vaitupu and from 160-180 kW on the other islands (excluding Niulakita where solar power is used). Technical losses are estimated to be 9%-10% which is somewhat high but non-technical losses are low at 4% to 5%.

Only solar photovoltaics and solar water heaters have proven successful in Tuvalu. Biomass is limited since most of the land is covered by coconut trees that have more economic value as coconut producers than as fuel. Biomass for energy is hampered by the poor soils that make recovery of the resource slow and by the limited land area that generally can be used more profitably for something other than growing fuel. The large number of coconut trees make biofuel production possible and that should be carefully investigated as it is a potentially large renewable energy resource.

Petroleum replaced biomass as the largest energy source sometime in the 1990s. The marine transport and power sectors are the largest users of fuel with about an even split of the 2.7 ML of ADO that was imported in 2003. The 790 kl of petrol imported in 2003 was divided between land transport and outboard motor use for boats. About 278,000 litres of petrol was shipped to the outer islands in 2003, virtually all used for outboard motors. The 400 kl of kerosene imported in 2003 was shared about half and half between domestic users and aviation.

Growth both in the land transport sector and electricity sector is expected to occur at a 3% to 4% rate over the next 10 years. LPG is expected to grow at nearly double that rate while kerosene use for households is expected to decline equally rapidly. The current CO 2 production is estimated at about 10.3 Gg/year with a 2013 projection of 13.0 Gg assuming no addition of renewable energy or energy efficiency measures. With the maximum expected use of solar energy and biofuels by 2013 saving about 0.8 Gg per year and energy efficiency measures saving about 1.4 Gg per year, a 17% reduction in GHG production in 2013 appears possible.

The PIGGAREP activities identified for Tuvalu will build on 3 key initiatives: (1) The Tuvalu Grid-connected PV project, (2) The Alofa Tuvalu's Amatuku Project and (3) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy

1) The Tuvalu Grid-connected PV project
Installation of this US$412,000 project has been completed and the project has been commissioned. During the commissioning, an on-the-job training workshop was conducted for Tuvalu technicians and engineers.

2) The Alofa Tuvalu's Amatuku Project
Details to be provided.

3) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy
The Government of Tuvalu is one of the six countries whose Italian funded energy programme is being managed by IUCN-Oceania Regional Office. Tuvalu has proposed the installation of a 40kW Photovoltaic system to be integrated into the electricity grid network at Vaitupu (Tuvalu Photovoltaic Electricity Network Integration Project - TPENIP), the largest island of the eight islands in Tuvalu. Although the largest island, Vaiutpu's peak power demand is only about 50 kW during the daytime – this is sixteen times less than that of Funafuti, the business and political centre of Tuvalu.

IUCN and Tuvalu have agreed that a Consultant is to be recruited to oversee the project implementation and that the person recruited should be in post by August 2008. One of the priority tasks to be performed by the consultant is to carry out a scoping mission to Vaitupu together with an Engineer from TEC to determine the technical feasibility or otherwise of the proposed project and recommend the best possible option. The allocated budget is USD 800,000 and is expected to bring about a reduction of 184 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).

PIGGAREP is supporting the e8 and the Italy/IUCN projects through a study it is currently funding to look at the best way of establishing and operationalising a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Unit within the Tuvalu Electricity Corporation. The consultancy contract has been signed and the study has started in July and to be completed by end of August 2008.

PIGGAREP will also prepare and conduct the associated trainings for the TPENIP.

een signed and the study has started in July and to be completed by end of August 2008.

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Tonga Interventions

Tonga consists of 176 islands with a total area of 748 km 2 and an EEZ of about 700,000 km 2 . The 1996 census counted 97,784 people and showed an average annual growth rate of 0.35% for the previous ten years. Tonga has a small open economy with squash, coconuts and vanilla the main export crops that make up 2/3 of total exports. In recent years, GDP growth has been nearly 3% per year.

Although biomass remains important for cooking and crop drying energy, well over half of the national energy needs comes from imported petroleum. Solar energy accounts for less than 1% of the total and there have been no other renewable energy resource developments.

Petroleum accounts for around 5% of Total Imports by value though increasing prices are expected to increase that percentage in the future. Imports of motor spirits in 2000 were about 13,400,000 litres, distillate was about 18,800,000 litres and LPG about 1,270,000 litres.

Recent annual operational data for electricity generation was not available but is estimated at about 33 GWh with a total distillate fuel use of 8.5 ML so about 10,300 ML of distillate was apparently used for transport and commercial use.

The estimated GHG emissions from burning fossil fuels in 2002 were 104.31 Gigagrammes of CO 2 and an increase to 121.0 by 2010 appears reasonable. Very aggressive efforts in applying energy efficiency measures and renewable energy development could result in a total reduction of the 2010 emissions by 35%. Achieving that level depends strongly on the development of biofuel as a replacement for diesel fuel.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for Tonga will build on 2 key initiatives: (1) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy and (2) Energy Division's Renewable Energy Activities

1) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy

Communiqué has been signed and proposals have been submitted. The Tonga project is the rehabilitation of the solar home systems in Mo'unga'one and Mango islands in the Ha'apai group for US$206,550. Altogether there are 60 solar systems that need to be rehabilitated and they are in different stages of disrepair. The rehabilitation of these solar home systems will ensure that the people in the islands will have access to better lighting. The Tongan Government has put in place a renewable Energy Policy that promotes the use of renewable energy technologies to promote both social and economic development especially in the rural areas.

It has been highlighted that there is still opportunity available to access more funds under the Italian- Pacific SIDS collaboration.

PIGGAREP will support this project by conducting the financial/economic and environmental assessments of the proposed project.

2) The EU EDF 10
Tonga will receive a total of 5.9 million Euro from the European Union's 10th EDF. This is generally for renewable energy for development and sustainable livelihoods. The Financing Agreement is to be signed in November 2007 during the Forum Meeting in Nuku'alofa. Tonga has confirmed that its priority project will be on Windpower.

The Government of Tonga recognizes the impact of the world fuel price crisis as one of the main Issues facing Tongan citizens, whether it be through increased prices at the bowser, or increasing electricity tariff rates. As such, the Government has embarked on a major renewable energy campaign with a target of having 50 percent of our electricity from renewable energy sources within three years. To achieve this goal, Tonga is currently working with the European Union on a $50 million wind farm project. A second exciting prospect is a $30 million bio-mass plant which is currently in the feasibility stage. The combined impact of these two projects could see electricity prices at 40 percent of their current rates, but not only would people receive significantly cheaper power but the lower tariff rates would be sustainable as Tonga would be moving more and more to renewable energy.

Letters of Confirmation
Financial management training for Tonga Rescos
RE activities survey REAS
RE developments in Tonga 160709
Improving sustainability through REEEP

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Solomon Islands Interventions

The Solomon Islands consists of nearly 1,000 islands – 350 populated – with 28 thousand km 2 of land spread over 0.8 million km 2 of sea. There are the six main islands: Guadalcanal, Malaita, Makira, Santa Isabel, Choiseul and New Georgia.

The country is relatively rich in mineral, hydro and forest resources.

From 1986-1999, the population grew 2.8% annually reaching 457,000 in 2003.

The economy consists of a mixed subsistence sector on which the majority of the population is dependent, and a small monetised sector dominated by large-scale commercial enterprises. Between 1996 and 2002, gross domestic product declined in real terms by 24%, over 35% per capita. Performance was considerably worse for the monetised sector. In 2003, GDP grew by 3.8%, nearly equalling the 1992 level.

The Solomon Islands is overwhelmingly dependent on imported petroleum for its commercial energy needs but biomass still accounts for about 61% of gross national energy production, petroleum products for 38%, and hydropower and solar about 1%. Imports of petroleum fuel have increased less than 2% annually by volume since 1990 but constitute a fairly high percentage of total imports by value, higher than the early 1980s when high oil prices were of concern to the government.

There are no reliable data on sectoral energy demand. The PIREP mission estimates 2001/2002 petroleum demand of 78 million litres (ML) or 68 kilotonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe), with transport accounting for 56%, electricity 28%, commerce and industry 15% and direct household use (mostly cooking and lighting) 1%. About 89% of all households rely mainly on biomass for cooking. Fuel wood burning probably totals about 110 ktoe, with additional biomass used for copra and cocoa drying.

The 1999 census reports indicates that 16% of all households, but only 9% of those outside Honiara, had access to electricity. 69% received power from SIEA, 28% generated their own power, and 23% had other sources.

To estimate future commercial energy demand, it is assumed that population increases 2.8% per year (3.8% in Honiara), GDP grows 3-4% per year, and – assuming no major investments in renewable energy or energy efficiency – petroleum imports grow 4% annually, except distillate for electricity use at 5.2%. With these assumptions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial energy would increase from 206 Gg in 2001/02 to 313 Gg a decade later, a 52% increase.

In principle, the Solomon Islands could reduce emissions by 122 Gg per year within a decade, nearly 60% of current emissions and 40% of those a decade from now. This is based on proven technologies and known resources but does not consider economic, financial, political, social, technical, environmental or other practical constraints. About 90% of potential reductions would be from renewable energy (mostly biofuels and from hydro) and 10% from improved energy efficiency. Large-scale solar PV and wind combined would account for less than 4%.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for the Solomon Is will build on 2 key initiatives: (1) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy , (2) Energy Division's Renewable Energy Activities and (3) SIVEC's RE Development Activities

1) Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy
The communiqué has been signed. Proposals were developed and submitted. The proposals to the Italian government are for the electrification of schools and clinics/area health centres located in the rural areas that have no connection to the national grid right throughout Solomon Islands.

2) Energy Division's Renewable Energy Activities
Details are to be supplied

3) SIVEC's RE Development Activities
Details are to be supplied

Letters of Confirmation
Wind resources developments 030212
Signature letter from SPREP

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Samoa Interventions

Samoa, northeast of Fiji, has 2,934 km 2 of land area, mostly in the islands of Savai'i (58% of land) and Upolu (38%). The climate is warm, humid and tropical with distinct wet and dry seasons. In 2001 Samoa had a population of 176,848 with national average growth of 0.56% per year, and urban growth of 1.5% per year since 1991. In 2001, 22% of the population resided in the Apia urban area, 30% in northwest Upolu, 24% elsewhere in Upolu, and most of the remaining 24% in Savai'i.

In 2003, an International Monetary Fund study concluded that the Samoan economy has been transformed into ' one of the best-managed in the Pacific islands' ... with ' perhaps the most successful example of reform in the region.

About half of Upolu's electricity is from hydro, other commercial energy needs met primarily from petroleum fuels. Cooking with biomass probably accounts for half of gross energy demand but there are no reliable or recent data to confirm this. There has been limited use in Samoa of solar photovoltaics (PV) on a very small scale.

From 1989-1998, petroleum imports grew 7.3% annually

In 2001, 93% of Samoa's households were electrified and most of those unelectrified live relatively close to distribution lines.

EPC has eight small hydroelectric plants (950–2000 kW, mostly run-of-river) at five locations on Upolu totalling 11.5 MW of effective capacity and about 18 MW of diesel. Dry season hydro capacity is 4.2 MW. Overall, the derated dry season capacity of all systems is about 22 MW of which 81% is diesel and 19% hydro. The peak Upolu load in 2002 was 15.8 MW. The Savai'i peak was 2.85 MW with 4.5 MW of (derated) capacity. A 2003 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) study estimates that generation will grow in the next few years at 6.5% per year.

The government estimates that Samoa emitted 102.8 gigagrammes (Gg) of CO 2 -equivalent greenhouse gases (GHGs) in 1994, which is consistent with Greenpeace estimates of 97 Gg in 1993. By 2003, emissions reached 187 Gg, an average annual growth rate of 7% since 1994, equivalent to a doubling time of ten years. Assuming that population continues to grow less than 1% per annum, and the economy grows at 3-4%, then fuel use and GHGs are likely to increase about 6.3% per year, with emissions of 345 Gg by 2013. This is a 'business-as-usual' estimate, assuming no significant new investment in renewable energy or energy efficiency. In principle, by 2013 Samoa could reduce emissions through renewable energy investments by 81 Gg, equivalent to 43% of 2003 emissions and 23% of projected 2013 emissions. This is based on proven technologies and more-or-less known resources but does not consider economic, financial, political, social, technical, environmental or other practical constraints.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for Samoa will build on 3 key initiatives: (1) The ADB Power Sector Expansion Project , (2) the Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy, and (3) Joint PIEPSAP, UNDP and SOPAC Energy Projects.

The ADB Power Sector Expansion Project
The project involves a TA - Preparing the Power Sector Expansion Program - that will (i) develop a comprehensive reform program, including a regulatory framework, that would enable private sector participation and enhance the efficiency in the sector; (ii) develop a program to reform the Electric Power Corporation's (EPC) internal business and management procedures to enhance governance and cost efficiency; and (iii) prepare an investment road map to diversify the country's energy resources, meet future load growth, and reduce the burden of diesel imports.

This TA will then lead to 2 very important initiatives:

The Power Sector Expansion Project will comprise of (i) three investment components under the Electric Power Corporation's (EPC) investment plan, (ii) assistance to project management, and (iii) technical assistance (TA) programs to (a) improve EPC's financial performance; (b) establish effective regulation of the power sector; (c) establish a designated national authority; and (d) establish a clean energy fund. The investment components include two core and 16 candidate investment subprojects, and a project management component which will be implemented from 2008 to 2015. Component A comprises the Hospital feeder upgrading project-Stage 1 which forms part of EPC's underground cabling program for the transmission network to provide protection from cyclones. Component B comprises the supply and installation of pre-payment meters for all consumers by 2012. Component C comprises five generation and eleven transmission candidate subprojects identified under EPC's investment plan. The proposed ADF IX grant of $18.1 million to the Government will ease the macroeconomic impact of the large financing requirements for the power sector expansion project. A loan in the amount of $23.9 million is being provided in conjunction with this grant.

A TA to implement Samoa's National Energy Policy. The TA will consist of a:

Component 1- Regulatory Reform in the Power Sector
Component 1 will support the Government's overarching goal for the power sector to provide sustainable and reliable electricity services to all consumers at affordable prices. Component 1 will help establish the regulatory requirements for the power sector, including the drafting of a new electricity act to govern the sector and amendments to the EPC Act (1980), and establishment of a regulatory body and its roles and functions.

Component 2 - Establishment of a Clean Energy Fund
Component 2 will contribute to the Government's vision to enhance the quality of life for all Samoans through sustainable energy development. The CEF will promote and facilitate development of clean energy of initiatives for clean energy, environmental improvement, and climate change adaptation.

Component 3 - Establishment of a Designated National Authority
Component 3 will contribute to the Government's vision to enhance the quality of life for all Samoans through sustainable energy development.

Component 4 - Resident Financial Management Advisor to the Electric Power Corporation
The financing needs for the power sector and EPC to meet growing electricity demand places substantial requirements on EPC to improve internal financial management controls, accounting and reporting. As part of EPC's forward looking investment plan and need to improve timeliness of tariff adjustments, EPC will commence preparing 5-year financial projections. There is an opportunity to improve the existing tariff structure and introduce bulk power purchase agreements with large consumers to provide incentives for energy conservation and demand-side managements.

Government of Italy and PIC Cooperation Programme
The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment is coordinating this programme, which will be delivered through the IUCN Oceania office is Suva. A USD 600,000 proposal has been developed and submitted. Project is focussing on reducing GHG emission in the transport sector.

Joint PIEPSAP, UNDP and SOPAC Energy Projects
The PIEPSAP Project (2004-2008) has assisted Samoa with the following activities:

  • Draft policy statements and strategies produced in September 2005 including renewable energy targets
  • National Energy Policy endorsed by Samoa Cabinet in June 2007
  • GIS/MIS consultancy for power utility incepted in December 2006 with GIS/MIS system fully operational by 2nd quarter 2007
  • Cost-shared with UNDP TRAC the Preparatory Phase for the Samoa PV Rural Electrification Programme.

Since the PIEPSAP will continue to operate for just another year (up to mid August 2008), discussions of the collaborations between PIEPSAP and PIGGAREP has resulted in the suggestion of some activities to be picked up by PIGGAREP.

PIGGAREP's follow-up support to the PIEPSAP's activities will focus on the following activities:

  • Co-operation in developing strategic energy action plan
  • Follow-up in cooperation with UNDP on the Preparatory Phase for the Samoa PV Rural Electrification Programme including support for the implementation of such PV program
  • Support for EPC wind energy development including comprehensive feasibility studies (including geotechnical analysis) and identification of funding sources, possibly CDM

Furthermore, UNDP, SOPAC, RISOE, EPC and the government of Samoa is working on the Upolu wind resource assessment project (US$32,000). The project will select, install, and operate two (2) wind monitoring stations and after 1-2 years with successful minimum data recovery rates analyze the data and assess the wind resource potential on Upolu. The expected main outcome of the Project is to assess the wind resources in Upolu, Samoa.

The Government of Samoa through the Electric Power Corporation (EPC) and in cooperation with UNDP and the Danish NGO the Organisation for Sustainable Development have replaced the current diesel generator with photovoltaic (PV) based power systems on Apolima Island. The expected overall outcome is to improve livelihoods through a reliable, effective and environmentally friendly 24-hours power supply for the nine (9) households and one (1) church on Apolima Island including PV based streetlights.

In relation to the above, UNDP Samoa, PIEPSAP and SOPAC have undertaken a preparatory phase for the Samoa Photovoltaic (PV) Electrification Programme. The preparatory phase (US$47,000) will undertake a household survey of un-electrified households in Samoa; determine the resources available and the technical, economical, financial, and institutional feasibility of carrying out a Samoa Rural Electrification Program based on PV; and prepare a Program Document (i.e. investment plan) for a Samoa PV Rural Electrification Program. The expected outcome of the preparatory phase is a properly formulated and detailed PV based rural electrification program to provide the remaining up to 1,200 non-electrified households in Samoa with 24-hours power.

Samoa, UNDP and SOPAC have been working on a CocoGen project, looking at the feasibility of using copra oil for power generation. Following discussions between EPC Management, UNDP and SOPAC representatives on 19 July 2007 the Work Plan and Budget for the EPC CocoGen Phase II has been revised to accommodate suggestions and concerns of the EPC Board. The revised Work Plan and Budget acknowledges that given revised maximum blend mixtures of 5% CNO on the one hand and increased supply cost for diesel may change the economics of the project significantly. Revised scheduling also considers the critical nature of the supply chain. In addition an analysis of various options for institutional arrangements for CNO production now takes precedence over technical design issues. The work plan is based on the assumption that EPC's preferred supplier of new generation equipment for Savaii power station will allow a 5% CNO addition to the diesel fuel without negative consequences for warrantees or operational characteristics of the diesel engines.

April 25 th 2008 was dedicated as the Samoa National Energy Awareness Day (SNEAD) with activities targeting mostly school children. The theme for this event was " Energy for Life, Use it Wisely". The events during the SNEAD involved speech, poster and renewable energy model competitions among the primary and secondary schools. About 400 students participated in this event plus members of the general public who were mostly part-time participants throughout the event. The report on this event and its evaluation by the PIGGAREP PMO can be viewed at the PIGGAREP web page

Letters of Confirmation
Samoa RE Awareness Programme 020312
Grid Connected Solar PV Feasibility study 180412
Samoa RE Programme 120611
Samoa awareness programme 010311
EPC RE development 281108

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - PNG Interventions


Papua New Guinea (PNG) is by far the largest of the Pacific Island Countries (PICs), with over 600 islands, immense physical variety, and 5.6 million people (2003). Of all PICs, PNG is the most affected by natural disasters and has the lowest life expectancy. About 97% of land is under traditional clan ownership, providing an opportunity for people to manage land for their long-term benefit. PNG has two distinct economies: i) a modern, cash economy dominated by mining, timber, gas and oil, and agricultural exports (coffee, cocoa, tea, oil palm and copra); and ii) the traditional subsistence economy and semi-subsistence farming, with most villages producing little or no surplus for trading.

Since 1992, PNG has exported about 340 million barrels of light crude oil, about 100,000 bbl/day on average, from recoverable reserves of roughly 550 million barrels. In 2003 exports were 15 million barrels earning about US$ 520 million. Production will steadily decline over the next decade as the resource is depleted. The natural gas resource is equivalent to about 2,700 million barrels of oil (perhaps far more), over ten times PNG's remaining recoverable oil reserves.

In 2001, the end use consumption of commercial energy was 364 ktoe, a decrease of 58% from 2000. Industry accounted for 60%, transport 17% and agriculture/residential /commercial, 24%. Petroleum provided 40% of energy consumption and other energy forms (mainly electricity) 60%.

The WB estimates that in 2001, about 600 MW of installed electricity capacity (PNG Power and private) generated about 2,600 GWh. PNG Power supplies electricity to only 5.5% of households nationally, accounting for 82% of customers but 11% of sales. It is likely that under 10% of the population are electrified by all means: grid, self-generation, nearby industry, small hydro or solar.

The technical potential for renewable energy (RE) in PNG is enormous but much of the resource is in remote locations with limited demand and not readily exploitable. The bulk of potential reductions in GHG would come from hydropower, geothermal, and fuel ethanol. Even a large PV or wind energy programme would provide only modest GHG reductions.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for PNG will build on 2 key initiatives: (1) the Govt of Italy and PIC cooperation programme, and (2) the PNG Sustainable Energy Ltd's renewable energy developments.

Government of Italy and PIC Cooperation Programme
The communiqués has been signed and 8 proposals has been drafted and submitted. The PNG University of Technologies is taking the lead in developing proposals to be funded by the Italian government. They include the following:

1. Baiteta solar PV project (Madang Province)

ATCDI has got K6,000.00 (US$1, 968). ATCDI will submit a proposal to the Italian to cover the Solar modules, batteries, regulator, cables, light fittings, cables, battery enclosure, module

2. The Biodiesel project (Unitech, Lae)

ATCDI will submit a proposal to the Italian to cover a Personalized Biodiesel Production System, Diesel Engine for Testing Fuel, Dynameter plus accessories, Exhaust Gas Analyzer, Engine Performance Analyzer, Wear Particle Analyzer (Model 56), Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter and an expendable supplies & services (including coconut oil).

3. The Bogo MHP project rehabilitation (Simbu)

ATCDI spent US$6500 to install in 1993. For this project ATCDI will submit a project proposal to the Italian to cover the following Turbine/generator, uPVC pipes and fitting, cement, timber, angle iron and steel bars.

4. Buakap solar PV project (Huon, Morobe)

This is a new project. A new Aidpost building has been built funded by the Rotary Club. For this project ATCDI will submit a project proposal to the Italian to cover solar modules, batteries, regulator, cables, light fittings, battery enclosure and module security frame.

5. The gasifier project (Asaro, EHP)

The gasifier itself was funded by GEF/SGP with a grant of US$3929. The gasifier will be transported to site and installed. For this project ATCDI will submit project proposals for co-financing from the Italian.

6. Solar PV and micro hydropower training

The training will be conducted in the four regions. For this project ATCDI will submit a proposal to the Italian to cover the local transport, resource materials, copying & printing of lecture materials, refreshments, Certificates and contingencies.

7. ATCDI staff development

This is a project to develop capacity of ATCDI staff by visiting/attachment to two RE organisations abroad for 2 weeks. Organisations selected are CASE in Perth and Rainbow Power Company (RPC) in Nimbin NSW. For the staff development training ATCDI will submit project proposals for support by the Italian.

8. Bago solar PV project (Pomio, ENB).

This is a new project located in the New Guinea Islands region. For this project ATCDI will submit a project proposal to the Italian to cover Solar modules, batteries, regulator, cables, light fittings, Cables, battery enclosure, module security frame.

PNG Sustainable Energy Ltd (PNGSEL)
1) PNGSEL is keen to develop rural power supply using straight coconut oil/biodiesel to provide power supply to remote rural communities, where the cost of petroleum diesel is very high. PNGSEL has an initial budget of K1.7 million to start the production of biodiesel and coconut oil for local generation of power supply to remote villages (Pomio Coconut and Biodiesel Rural Electrification Project). Coconuts in these rural areas have been left unattended because of the high cost of transport and a market available locally will promote coconut tree rehabilitation and grow local economies as well as improve education and health programs through the availability of power supply. Their model will include the availability of Micro Finance Banking and communications, including an internet cafe.

PNGSEL is also implementing a trail bio-diesel project at Aroma. Aroma project will trial the use of small scale biofuel production to provide power to 480 people (80 households). Under this model being tested PNG SEL provides a local coconut plantation owner with oil extraction machinery and arranges a purchase agreement of buy straight coconut oil (SCO) at a set price. SCO will be used to power the adjacent villages. Small scale biodiesel production for local vehicles will also being trailed. Total load is estimated at 144,000kWh, requiring around 50kVA installed capacity. A 13.5kVA genset has also been provided for the plantation.

As this is a trial of a model for small-scale sustainable electrification it would be useful if it could be co-funded as a feasibility study.

A PIGGAREP support in training and exposure of PNGSEL staff in the production of coconut oil and biodiesel for the generation of rural power supply would add value to their rural electrification programs as they will be looking to roll out these programs throughout the country, wherever there is an abundant supply of coconuts.

A sub-section of the above would be the exposure to the technical aspects of processing equipment and the associated advantages and disadvantages of the different types available on the market. Such an exercise would assist greatly in PNGSEL's sourcing of the right equipment and processors from the very beginning instead of half way through the exercise when funding can be a real issue.

2) The other area of interest is in Photovoltaic. PNGSEL have identified areas where Solar Powered Stations would be the most beneficial option for some rural village settings. The budget for the current project for one of the villages in the Western Province (Mabudawan Solar Power Station Project) is about K7 million Kina for a 300kW solar power station. This exercise is a first for PNGSEL's engineers and some exposure/training on the design and construction aspects of solar power stations between 10 kW to 300 kW would definitely add value to these projects. Again, PNGSEL will be looking to construct a number of these projects throughout the country and the high initial capital costs involved does not leave any room for mistakes (as mistakes can result in the project being abandoned and a lot of money wasted).

3) An agreement has been signed between PNG Sustainable Energy Limited, Bismarck Energy and New Guinea Gold for feasibility studies to be carried out on the potential of a geothermal power station at the Sinivit gold mine in East New Britain. The plan is for Bismarck Energy to construct the geothermal power plant and sell electricity to New Guinea Gold the developer of the Sisnivit Gold mine.

4) Cooperation Agreement between PNG Sustainable Energy Limited (PNG SEL) and New Guinea Ireland Provincial Government (NIPG) is been prepared for signing by January 2008 to pave way for the parties to investigate the rehabilitation of Sohun Micro Hydropower Station and the development of potential hydro and biodiesel resources in New Ireland Province. The investigations would identify, quantify and consolidate the rehabilitation requirements together with other resources and provide options for harnessing and development. Sohun has 231kW generation capacity but current output is only 60-80 kW due to mechanical and low-flow problems. According to previous studies, it is anticipated that a total generation reserve of over 1MW would be developed to support power supply to Namatanai District Headquarter and communities along the peripherals of power generation and transmission routes.

PIGGAREP assistance is required in the completion of the rehabilitation study.

5) PNGSEL is also interested in investigating the potential for wind power generation in Hula Peninsula. This would aim to cater for the population on the Hula Peninsula, around 11,970 people (1,855 households). Load is estimated at 820kW or 3.5GWh/a. Following a detailed evaluation the aim would be to install around 900kW of wind power and a similar capacity of diesel in a hybrid setup. Hula is expected to be an area of good wind potential based on ground observations and some measurements nearby. Another possibility would be to use larger turbines and interconnect with a nearby 22kV PNG Power line.

Assistance is required from PIGGAREP to carry out feasibility study and train local engineers to plan and design wind farms.

6) Ormand is a storage hydro in the Eastern side of Central Province. Total installed capacity has been estimated at 5MW for an annual output of 33.8 GWh/a. It has been suggested that it is expandable to 8MW with annual output increasing to 63 GWh/a.

The population within range of medium voltage distribution lines is around 39,053 people (6,083 households). This hydro could also be connected to an existing PNG Power 22kV line nearby.

Assistance could be co-funding of a feasibility study.

7) Kimadan is a 3 stage run of river hydro in the middle of New Ireland Province. Total installed capacity has been estimated at 5.1MW for an annual output of 29.6 GWh/a. The population within range of medium voltage distribution lines is around 30,980 people (6,024 households), while there are some commercial loads including a large Palm Oil plant. The connection of Kavieng town would require around 160km of high voltage lines.

Assistance could be co-funding of a feasibility study.

Biodiesel Production in Karkar Island of PNG - Learning from a Success Story 

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Niue Interventions

Niue is a single raised coral island of 259 km2 located about the centre of a triangle consisting of Tonga, Samoa and the Cook Islands. The current population of ethnic Niueans in New Zealand is about 20,000 while the population on Niue is around 1,700. There has been some effort to encourage repatriation though there continues to be a slow loss of families to New Zealand.

GDP in 2000 was about $14.2 million with 3 million from agriculture, $311,000 from tourism and $204,000 from manufacturing. The remainder came from donor funding with about $6 million from New Zealand. Remittances from family members overseas are also an important input to the economy.

Electricity is generated and delivered by the Niue Power Corporation, a government corporation reporting to the Secretary for Government. It has 16 employees with five in technical jobs, two as meter readers and nine in management and administration. Capacity is 2.4 MW using three 800 kW Caterpillar engines but have to be derated to 1.6 MW.

In FY2002-2003, about 1.5 ML of ADO, 570 KL of petrol, 540 KL of Jet Fuel, and 14 ,800 kg of LPG were imported. The bulk of diesel fuel is used for electricity generation, nearly 1 ML per year. 90% of petrol goes for land transport. Electricity sales were 3.37 GWhr in FY2002-2003. Energy production from renewable sources is less than 1% of the total, all in biomass for household use.

The expected growth in fuel use for petrol and jet fuel is 2% per year, 2% for ADO use for electricity and 3% for ADO used for transport. LPG is expected to grow rapidly at 6%. The 2002 baseline estimation of petroleum based GHG emissions is 6.9 GG and the 2012 forecast is 8.7 Gg. If renewable energy and energy efficiency measures are aggressively applied, about 15% of ADO used for electricity can be saved through efficiency measures, about 15% of ADO for electricity can be saved through solar and wind systems connected to the grid. About 5% of ground transport fuel use can be saved through energy efficiency measures. The total savings would be around .96 Gg in 2012 or about 11% of total CO 2 emissions.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for Niue will build on 3 key initiatives: (1) REP-5 , (2) EDF 10 Renewable Energy Programme and (3) the Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy .


Under the REP-5 Niue will implement the following:

  • Supply of solar water heaters
  • 240 SWHs are currently being installed by local contractors under this programme. To be eligible for the discount, residents must hand in their existing electric water heaters. Total costs: 600,000 Euro.
  • Grid-connected PV system
  • A grid connected PV system is to be installed on a public building. Capacity of the system is to be 35 – 55 kWp. Total costs: 400,000 Euro.
  • Forecast published, contract to be signed by end of May, installation to be completed by January 2009.
  • Awareness Raising
  • Awareness raising to be carried out in conjunction with the SWH project. Total costs: To be confirmed. Activities has begun and will continue throughout 2008 and 2009.

EDF 10 Renewable Energy Programme

The financing agreement was signed in October 2007. 10 th EDF A envelope - € 3,000,000 this envelope will cover long-term programmable development operations under the strategy, of which:

  • Focal sector Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency €2,550,000 85% EDF
  • Non-focal sector component: village economy development €450,000 15% EDF
  • Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy
  • Niue has signed the Communiqué but and has identified Mr George Lakatani to be responsible for drafting Niue's proposals.

Download: PIGGAREP Niue factsheet

Letters of Confirmation
RE developments in Niue 100609
RE developments in Niue 200410

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Nauru Interventions

Consisting of a single, isolated raised coral equatorial island, Nauru has a total land area is 21 km2 with an EEZ of 320,000 km2. There are two separate plateau areas: "bottomside" that is a few metres above sea level and "topside" that is typically 30 metres higher. The 2002 census shows a population of 10,065 persons. The climate is equatorial marine in nature. There are no cyclones though rainfall is cyclic and periodic droughts are a serious problem with one year having a recorded rainfall of only 280 mm.

The Baselines
Power generation and transportation are 100% dependent on fossil fuels with the phosphate mining as the major consumer. Fossil fuel consumption has declined corresponding with the decline in the mining industry but has slowly risen corresponding with the current secondary mining operations. In 2003, fuel imports was estimated at 14 million litres.

In 2000-2001, domestic use of electricity amounted to 18.4 GW. With 1677 households enumerated in 2002, electricity use per household is one of the highest in the Pacific with an average use of 915 kWh/month.

No significant commercial development of renewable energy has been recorded. Only solar water heating has been used to any extent and most of the systems failed after a few years of use and were not repaired.

The Japanese did a technical trial of OTEC in 1981 with an experimental plant on the west coast of Nauru that produced a net power of 15kW. The trials were mainly as engineering trials to gain experience with the technology and have not resulted in further development in Nauru.

Nauru has a very good solar resource. Measurements show an average of about 5.8 kWhr/m2/day with only small seasonal variation.

The wind resource is poorly known and a resource assessment for topside would be worth carrying out to determine the appropriateness of further development.

Nauru is presently developing a national energy policy in which it hopes to increase the share of renewable energy in its energy mix by 10% by year 2020.

The addition of renewable energy and energy efficiency measures has an estimated potential of reduction of 35% of Nauru's 2013 GHG predicted values.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for Nauru is based largely on two key on-going projects: (1) the EU-funded Support to the Energy Sector in five ACP Pacific Islands (REP-5), and (2) the European Union's 10th EDF Renewable Energy Programme.

The REP- 5 in Nauru
The overall objective of the REP-5 programme is poverty alleviation by improving the access to electricity and thus the living conditions of the Pacific Island States. The specific objectives for the programme are to improve the overall efficiency of the energy sector and, where justified, increase production through renewable energy sources to allow a better allocation of limited resources for sustainable development, reducing local pollution and environmental risks associated with current energy generation practices.

The REP-5 component for Nauru is approximately A$2.2 million and is currently under implementation while the EDF 10 is for 2.3 million Euro and whose financing agreement has been signed in October 2007. A consultant was in Nauru in February 2008 to conduct the projects identification study.

The REP-5, which will be completed by the end of 2009, involves renewable energy and energy efficiency activities. REP-5 has recruited an Energy Officer (Ms Sylvie Dageago) and there is provision for an Assistant EO to work on REP-5 up to the end of 2009. REP-5 involves a tariff review study, estimated at €60,000 planned for the third quarter of 2008 and a 40 kWp grid connected PV system to be installed at Nauru College, estimated at €500,000.

Nauru signed the financing agreement for the EDF 10 in October 2007 and is expecting a programme worth €2.3 million. A consultant was in Nauru in February 2008 to conduct the projects identification study.

PIGGAREP will assist Nauru by expanding the Nauru RE market beyond those provided through the REP-5 and EDF 10. These will include the following activities:

  • a study of the potential productive uses of solar energy for desalination, laundry and catering purposes at the hospital and in fisheries
  • wind power feasibility study at the highest areas of Nauru (the topside)
  • strengthening the capacity of the NUA

The incremental activities that are planned for Nauru in 2008 are based on expanding the Nauru RE market beyond those provided through the REP-5. These will include three key activities:

  • a study of the potential productive uses of solar energy for desalination, laundry and catering purposes at the hospital and in fisheries
  • wind power feasibility study at the highest areas of Nauru (the topside)
  • strengthening the capacity of the NUA

As an equatorial country, Nauru has a very good solar resource. Measurements show an average of about 5.8 kWhr/m2/day with only small seasonal variation. Despite this, solar technologies are not widely used in Nauru. The temperature is always around 30o C and there is limited use of solar water heaters in the domestic sector. However, solar water heating could be introduced at the national hospital for laundry and catering purposes. At the same time, it could be used for cleaning purposes at the Fisheries sector.

The climate is equatorial marine in nature. There are no cyclones though rainfall is cyclic and periodic droughts are a serious problem with one year having a recorded rainfall of only 280 mm. Producing portable water in a cost effective manner is a priority to Nauru and therefore solar desalination is an opportunity to be investigated in Nauru.


This study will extend REP-5's focus on grid-connected solar in a school to an investigation of other productive applications of solar energy, particularly in the water, health and the fisheries sectors. This activity is timed to take place after the adoption of the tariff study under REP-5 (in mid-2009) since the power tariff will have a significant impact on the commercial viability of the solar energy applications.

The study will generally be to investigate the technical and economic viability of introducing solar for solar desalination, water heating for laundry and catering purposes at the hospital and for cleaning purposes at the fishery sector.

Wind power feasibility study at the highest areas of Nauru (the topside)
In 2006, WINERGY NC of New Caledonia conducted a wind mapping exercise in Nauru in an effort to quantify the available wind potential. The wind atlas that was produced showed that Nauru has a good wind regime. The study identified that the best sites for wind projects are in the Northeast where a wind project at IJUW with wind speed of up to 6 m/s at 50m which can possibly provide around 25% of the domestic demand for electricity on the island. The study also found that moderate wind speed of 5.5 m/s at 50m could be found along the eastern coast.

To further advance the wind power development in Nauru, a feasibility study of a wind power project at IJUW is to be undertaken.

Strengthening the capacity of the NUA
The strengthening of the capacity at NUA will involve three activities. These include the following:

  • participation at the SIS Capacity Building Workshop on Renewable Energy Technology Applications: 21-25 April 2008
  • two local training workshops on renewable energy
  • extension of the employment of the Energy Officer at NUA.

SIS Capacity Building Workshop

At the Sixteenth Small Island States Leaders' Summit held at Nuku'alofa, Tonga on 15 October 2007, the Summit noted that non-fossil solutions are viable and critical, particularly for the SIS like Nauru, which face particular hardships as a result of climate change and sea level rise. The objectives of the workshop are:

  • to strengthen the capacity in the SIS to Productively Utilize Renewable Energy (PURE) services from standalone and grid-connected PV, wind and biofuel through the sharing of field experiences, and
  • to provide an opportunity for the SIS to observe and to learn from the biofuel and wind power developments in Vanuatu as well as in Australia and other PICs.
  • The workshop will be held at the Melanesian Hotel at Port Vila, Vanuatu on 21st – 25th April 2008.

Local training workshops

In October 2008, the Pacific Power Association and the e8 will be jointly conducting a training-of-trainers workshop on renewable energy. This intensive two weeks training workshop will cover both the technical and financial aspects of renewable energy. The two participants from Nauru will then replicate the training workshop in Nauru in 2009. This PIGGAREP-supported workshop will also aim at training technicians to maintain RONTEL's AusAID- funded mobile phone and wireless Internet connection programme powered from wind and solar PV. This will be followed by a training workshop on grid-connected solar PV in preparation for the maintenance of the REP-5 project at Nauru College and future similar installations planned in the EDF 10 programme.

Extension of the employment of the Energy Officer

Under the REP-5, an Energy Officer was recruited in November 2007 to work specially on coordinating the REP-5 activities. The position is based at NUA and is the first position at NUA to focus specifically on renewable energy and energy efficiency. The position is to be funded by REP-5 until 31st Dec 2009. To ensure continuity, PIGGAREP will extend the services of the EO beyond December 2009.

Download: PIGGAREP Nauru Factsheet

Letters of Confirmation
RE developments in Nauru

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Kiribati Interventions


Kiribati includes one raised coral island (Banaba) and 32 atolls in three island groups (Gilbert, Line and Phoenix) that are spread over an ocean area 4,200 km East to West and 2,000 km North to South including a total land area of 811 km 2 . The 2000 census counted 84,494 residents representing an annual growth rate of 1.7%. The urban area of Tarawa grew at an annual rate of 5.2% while rural population fell at 0.6% per year over the past decade. In 2000, the 36,717 person Tarawa population represented 43% of the total population of Kiribati.

Phosphate, once the leading source of income, was mined out in 1979 though some income from a phosphate reserve fund established in 1956 is still present. Outer islands remain mostly in a traditional subsistence and barter economy, only Tarawa and Kiritimati can be considered as full participants in the money economy.


Though biomass used for cooking and crop drying provides around 25% of the gross national energy production, Kiribati is highly dependent on petroleum imports for electricity generation for urban areas, land transport, sea transport and air transport. Though solar power is a significant energy source for the outer islands, overall it produces less than 1% of the total energy used by Kiribati.

In 2003 about 4.9 ML of petrol, 2 ML of kerosene and 9 ML of ADO was delivered to Kiribati customers.

Tarawa electricity demand in 2003 was 55% government, 30% domestic and 15% commercial. Since there is no significant tourist industry, commercial uses are mostly for stores and offices. JICA predicts a slowing of the 8% electricity growth rate to 3% over the next decade but the PIREP team considers this too low and estimates a 4.5% growth for that period with the rate of demand growth on Kiritimati higher than that on Tarawa. With 2003 generation on Tarawa 15.9 GWh, that means a use of around 4.4 ML of ADO for electricity production. Production figures for Kiritimati were not available but generation is a fraction of that of Tarawa.

In 2003, at least 500 outer island households used solar energy for lighting and operating radios and other small appliances. The SEC operated about 325 of them and the rest were installed privately. By the end of 2005 with the completion of the EU outer islands electrification project, the number will have reached more than 2000 with most of them operated by the SEC. Typical installations include a 100 Wp panel and 100 Ah battery.

Since almost all the GHG emissions occur on the urban islands, any reduction in GHG emissions will have to be through energy efficiency improvements or the use of grid connected renewable energy systems. Easily the largest potential for GHG reduction is the conversion from diesel fuel to biofuels based on coconut oil. The team estimates that as much as 85% of ADO used for electricity in 2013 could be offset by the use of biofuels and another 15% by solar and wind. Since the use of electricity on a per-capita basis is quite low, it seems unlikely that energy efficiency measures would save more than 10% of electricity use (most of that by government) and 5% of transport use by 2013.

Feasibility Study - Could Coconut Oil be a solution to Kiritimati Island's Energy Security Problem?

The PIGGAREP Support

The PIGGAREP activities identified for Kiribati will build on 4 key initiatives: (1) Government of Italy and PIC Cooperation Programme , (2) EU EDF 10, (3) Solar Energy Company Ltd and (4) the UNDP Multi-country Office in Suva, Fiji.

1) Government of Italy and PIC Cooperation Programme
Kiribati has signed the communiqué but has not submitted its proposals.

2) EU EDF 10

The Financing Agreement was signed in 2007. Under EDF 10, the following specific objective will be pursued with a Renewable Energy allocation of € 4,100,000

  • to increase power production from renewable energy sources and
  • to improve the overall policy framework of the energy sector

This budget is proposed to be distributed as follows:

  • Equipment: €2,744,000
  • Training, Installation and Storage, and Technical Assistance: €950,000
  • Mid-term review & end-of-project evaluation: €160,000
  • Contingencies (6%): €246,000
  • The €2,744,000 for equipment could be distributed as follows:
  • Additional 800 to 1,000 SHS 100Wp: €1,200,000
  • Between 200 and 250 larger PV systems (300 Wp): €600,000
  • Between 20 and 40 community halls: €90,000
  • Electrifying 4 secondary schools and one island council with micro-grids and offering computer labs to the schools: €600,000
  • Setting up service centre in Kiritimati Island with related services: €94,000
  • Equipment for grid connected solar array: €100,000

In August 2008, SOPAC has assisted Kiribati with the stakeholder consultations on the draft Energy Policy.

3) Kiribati Solar Energy Company (KSEC)

The KSEC is about to receive 4,1 million euros of new funding from the European Union EDF10 for the expansion of the installed capacity from 250,000 Wp to around 500,000 Wp. As a result, the average installed capacity per island is going to be 28,000 Wp, half of which will be 100 Wp Solar Home Systems (or around 140 units per island) and the other half are expected to be slightly larger PV systems to be installed in schools, churches, community houses and businesses. As a result, the percentage of houses in the outer islands with access to electricity services will increase from 34% to 52%.

With the current administrative set-up, which centralizes all the data entry at the headquarters, it is going to be extremely difficult for the KSEC to manage the newly installed capacity. This is why before the next project is implemented, the KSEC needs to be able to have the island and village technicians directly entering and accessing technical, financial and logistics data.

KSEC is therefore working on designing a web based software application (RESCO Manager III) for the installation and management of renewable energy equipment and thus contribute to the expansion of rural electrification projects.

RESCO Manager III will be made available in open source and public domain will greatly assist the expansion of renewable energy service companies (RESCOs) in the PICs and worldwide and thus promote renewable energy. Once migrated to open source, any RESCO will be able to access the code (known as open source ), and change it in order to suit any requirement without having to pay a license or contract to the company and consultants that originally designed and programmed it (known as public domain ). The new release will be easily downloadable through several websites on the Internet.

This will be a joint effort between PIGGAREP, REP-6, EU EDF 8 & 9 and UNDP. PIGGAREP will be the leading player in this effort covering 40% of the budget. PIGGAREP support will be in the areas of project management, programming application, preparing the Help File and the testing and the implementation of RESCO Manager 3.


The UNDP Multi Country Office in Suva is at the final stages of approving a Maintaining Renewable Energy Systems in Kiribati through Technical Training Project for USD 35,000.

Download: PIGGAREP Kiribati factsheet

Letters of Confirmation
Biofuel FS in Kiritimati Island 221111
Biofuel FS in Kiritimati Island 231210
RE developments in Kiribati 100609

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Fiji Interventions


Fiji lies between 177 ° E and 178 ° W Longitude and 12 ° to 22 ° S Latitude with a land area of 18,333 km 2 and includes 320 islands of which about a third are inhabited. The most recent census was held in 1996 when Fiji's population was 775,000 showing an annual average growth rate of only 0.8% since 1986. Of the total, 51% were Fijian, 44% Indo-Fijian, and 5% other. About 46% were urban with over 250,000 people in the Suva-Nausori-Lami corridor. By 2004, Fiji's population was estimated to have reached 844,000. For several decades, Fiji's economy has been highly dependent on sugar and other agricultural exports, garments and other manufactured goods, gold and other primary products (timber, timber products, fish) and tourism.


Retained petroleum imports to Fiji including LPG apparently grew by about 1% annually from 1990-2003 to about 350 million litres. However, there are numerous gaps, anomalies and errors, and the oil companies would not provide data, so this is an estimate. Fiji has a larger fuel market than most neighbouring countries and prices are generally lower. For motor spirit, the wholesale price (excluding import duties and taxes) is about 25% below the average for PICs. For LPG, Fiji's wholesale price is below average for the region but the retail price is higher.

In 2003, hydro provided only 53% of FEA's generation of 699 GWh due to a drought, but hydro has been steadily declining as a percentage of the total over the past decade. In 2003 FEA had 14 power stations with 194 MW of installed capacity, including over 80 MW of hydro. Growth in generation has been uneven but averaged 6.4% from 1997 through 2003.

In 2000 Fiji emitted about 900 gigagrammes (Gg) of greenhouse gases (GHG) from petroleum fuel consumption. This is only approximate as petroleum imports have been erratic and data are questionable. Assuming that Fiji's economy grows slightly faster than population, as it has since Independence, by 2010 GHG emissions will reach 1500 Gg in the absence of new investments in renewable energy or energy efficiency (RE/EE). Ignoring possible economic, financial, social and environmental constraints, in principle, Fiji could reduce GHG emissions by over 500 Gg per year in a decade through substantial investments in renewable energy (over 90% of total) and to a lesser extent energy efficiency (under 10%). Renewable energy from a variety of sources – hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar energy, biofuels, bagasse, municipal solid waste, etc. could in principle be combined to produce all electricity for the grid system.

The PIGGAREP Support

The PIGGAREP activities identified for Fiji build on 2 key initiatives: (1) Govt of Fiji Rural Electrification Programme and the (2) the Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy .

Govt of Fiji Rural Electrification Programme

DOE's 2008 Business Plan has over forty activities. Of the 40 activities, 15 are renewable energy activities with a total budget of FJD2 million. These are the co-financing activities in Fiji and include the following:

  1. Renewable Energy Database
  2. Renewable Energy Statistics
  3. Capacity Building
  4. Solar Home Systems (SHS) Programme
  5. Somosomo Hydro Project
  6. Nabouwalu Hybrid (Wind/Solar) Project
  7. Biogas Programme
  8. Wind Programme (Survey & Long term monitoring)
  9. Hydro Programme (Survey & Long term monitoring)
  10. Wave Programme (Survey & Long term monitoring)
  11. Solar Insolation Programme (Survey & Long term monitoring)
  12. Renewable Energy Standards
  13. Compilation of Hydro Potential Report (based on 500 sites already being surveyed)
  14. Hydro Detailed Designing (2 projects per year)
  15. RED Infrastructure Framework (Standard Operating Procedures)

Pacific Islands Cooperation Programme with the Government of Italy

Fiji has signed the cooperation's communiqué and submitted proposals, including 10 biogas digesters. A ctivities which have been proposed to the Italian government include i) Enactment of Fiji's Energy Bill & review/adoption and re-enactment of relevant policies, frameworks and legislations for RETs, ii) Detailed designing for hydro projects in the Bua (Navakasali/Naruwai), Cakaudrove areas and iii) Detailed designing and construction of hybrid (wind/diesel) project on Gau Island (Vadravadra) - to include maintenance, management, etc.

 Download: PIGGAREP Fiji Factsheet (draft)

Letters of Confirmation
Formulation of Net-Metering Policy for Grid connected RE generation systems
RE resource assessments windpro software license purchase for Fiji

Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP) - Cook Islands Interventions

The Cook Islands consists of 15 islands totalling 240 km2 of land, located half way between Hawaii and New Zealand. The population in December 2001 was 18,027. The climate is maritime tropical with a small temperature difference between day and night and modest seasonal changes.

The Baselines
The Cook Islands are overwhelmingly dependent on imported refined petroleum fuels, which probably account for 90% of gross energy supply, biomass providing the remaining 10%, mainly for cooking. Petroleum imports in 2003 were about 11 million litres and expected to grow at 4.1% annually. Nearly 99% of all households had electricity in 2001 but with an estimated 8% growth in peak demand over the next decade.

Solar water heaters are well established and are found in nearly all the new housing and commercial buildings. Various solar photovoltaic installations for lighting, radio, water pumping, fish freezing and refrigeration on the outer islands but most have suffered from the lack of funds for post-installation support. On the other hand, Telecom has installed many PV generators, ranging from 600-7,800 peak watts (Wp) with excellent performance and high reliability due to the quality of installations good maintenance, using well-trained staff.

Like solar, various wind power installation have been installed in the Cook Is and have suffered from both inappropriate technical designs and the lack of expertise for post installation support.

Cook Islands has an adopted Energy Policy in which the goal for renewable energy is to increase the utilisation of renewable energy technologies in the Cook Islands energy supply. Under an aggressive effort to introduce renewable energy and improve energy efficiency, it is estimated that the Cook Islands could probably reduce the 2013 level of GHGs by a maximum of 13 Gg of which 84% would be from RE investments (wind, biofuel and solar) and 16% from EE.

The PIGGAREP Support
The PIGGAREP activities identified for the Cook Is is building on five (5) key on-going and parallel co-financing initiatives:

  • The Mangaia Power System Upgrade
  • The Rarotonga and Aitutaki Wind Power Development Project
  • The Pukapuka and Rakahanga Hybrid Projects
  • Biofuel Development Project
  • The Schools Environment Awareness

1. The Mangaia Power System Upgrade
Mangaia Island, one of the Southern Cook Islands, was beneficiary of a PREFACE (Pacific Renewable Energy France-Australia Common Endeavour) project, which comprised of the installation of two Vergnet 20 kW wind turbines in January 2003. A study conducted by SOPAC in 2007 revealed that the project if facing problems. These include:

  • Communication between power house and wind turbines
  • Reactive Power Consumption by Turbines
  • Mechanical Failure of Wind Turbine Components
  • Electrical Failure of the Wind Turbine components
  • Less-than-expected diesel savings
  • The SOPAC study proposed the following interventions to the Mangaia grid:
  • Expand Generation Capacity
  • Build protective housing around the wind turbine electronics
  • Overhaul of the Wind Turbines
  • Establish communication link between wind turbines and power house
  • Re-establish wind logging in Mangaia
  • Review of the electricity tariff of Mangaia Island
  • Include a storage and power conversion system
  • Mangaia Power System Upgrade Monitoring

These interventions is estimated to cost around USD$250,000. There appears to be French funding for about 50% of the cost but the Australians have not been able to confirm a contribution. If this does not materialise, the French Embassy is considering either 100% or go after a reduced version of the interventions proposed.

PIGGAREP will support the Mangaia Upgrade through technical assistance to review its electricity tariff. It will support the conduct of technical training for the engineers at the Mangaia Power Station. Community awareness training will be supported to give the community a better understanding of the role of the wind generators in their power supply but also for the community to appreciate and accept the outcome of their tariff review.

The Mangaia project has tarnished the reputation of RE in the Cook Islands. With the upgrade, PIGGAREP will support targeted public awareness campaigns to raise the profile and the acceptance of renewable energy in the Cook Is.

2. The Rarotonga and Aitutaki Wind Power Development Project
The UNDP Country Office in Samoa together with the PIEPSAP are currently supporting an 18 months wind resource assessment that will determine the potential for wind power in Rarotonga. The monitoring tower has three wind anemometers, fitted at three different levels -10 meters, 20 meters and 30 meters. Preliminary data from the assessment shows an average wind speed of above 6 meters per second. The Cook Island Government with support from the Asian Development Bank considers the development of a wind farm project based on the data collected. The project will consist of the installation and operation of up to 8 wind generators on a ridge in the Eastern part of the island. In order to more accurately estimate civil engineering cost for the project, PIGGAREP in August 2008 is funding a topographic and preliminary geo-technical survey on the proposed project site.

AusAID is currently funding a wind-monitoring project at Aitutaki. Aitutaki Power sends the data on a monthly basis to the Energy Office in Rarotonga. For Aitutaki, PIGGAREP will support the conduct of a feasibility study based on the outcome of the wind monitoring. PIGGAREP will also support the extension of the wind monitoring at Rarotonga and Aitutaki to Mauke, Atiu and Mitiaro (MAM).

Letter of Confirmation
Wind Power project in Atiu, Mauke and Mitiaro

3. The Pukapuka and Rakahanga Hybrid Projects
The Pukapuka PV project was installed in 1992 on 110 homes with 8 modules of 45Wp each and 17 homes with 12 modules of 45Wp each. The 8 panel PV design was intended to power a maximum of six high efficiency tube type fluorescent lights (2 at 18W and 4 at 13W) for 3 hours a day, small entertainment appliances (radio or cassette player) and either a solar type refrigerator (less than 0.7 kWh/day usage) or three hours of video use per day. The 17 homes having 12 modules shared their PV system with a nearby smaller house where additional lights were installed.

A stock take study of the project in May 2006 by the Energy Office made the following comments:

  • Overall status of the PV system is beyond their life expected and are serving the island very well. However, the batteries require replacement if the system is to be upgraded. The panels need to be dusted and retested so that they can be upgraded.
  • One of the problems acquired now is the vacant houses with Solar PV system on it. These systems cannot be left alone for a period of time or else batteries will be boiling.
  • The high amount of controllers malfunctioning requires urgent replacements.
  • The decision for a diesel power station for Pukapuka was agreed by the Island Councilors on the basis of economic development purpose such as fishing and other cottage industries, however this decision contradicts with the general view of the consumers. The merits of such proposal need to be further eveloped and consulted among the consumers.
  • It is so apparent to secure local market for the supply of PV equipments and for government to consider the removal of levies on solar appliances and equipments if the PV systems are to be upgraded.

The study provided the following recommendations:

Option 1: Upgrade the Solar PV system on Pukapuka to meet each individual power needs rather than standardized for all households with the following recommendations:

  • Initiate a renewable energy services company (RESCO) in country to provide services for the sustainability of the PV System.
  • Provisions must be made for further new houses that will be built within the next 5yrs.
  • Set policy guidelines for the institutional setup and maintenance programme for the sustainability of the project

Option 2: Install diesel power station for Pukapuka to provide opportunities for economic activities, as there are lot of young people unemployed, which they are migrating to the main land and abroad. Although there is a strong feeling among the general public that they still want their solar system it is a question of economic prosperity for island. The Solar system has served Pukapuka for over 10yrs and people have experienced and tasted the modern way of living, which at the moment cannot proceed due to the limited capacity. However, if this option is to undertaken, this report strongly recommends that an environmental and socio economic study be conducted on Pukapuka.

PIGGAREP will also provide support to the Pukapuka project through assistance to redesign and resize the system to fit individual needs as per option 1 above. Technical assistance will also be provided with regards to a new institutional and financial structure for the Pukapuka PV power supply and for a RESCO to provide services to solar PV installations around Cook Is.

Letters of Confirmation
Manihiki Solar PV
Pukapuka Nassau Suwarrow
Pukapuka Nassau Suwarrow Solar Grid
Letter of Aprroval of Funding under PEC to MOFA- Cook Islands
Support to Rakahanga Hybrid System

4. The Biofuel Development Project
The opportunity to use copra oil for fuel is much higher in the Northern Group than in Rarotonga. Disposing used cooking oil is becoming a serious environmental problems in the Cook Is. There is currently an individual effort to collect the used oil, refine it and then use it in transportation.

PIGGAREP will support the biofuel effort by conducting a feasibility study in the Northern Group. It will also support the recycling of used cooking oil through an exposure visit training and the marketing and acceptance of the recycled oil in the local market.

Letter of Confirmation
Update FS for RE options for Atiu and Rarotonga

5. The Schools Environment Awareness Programme
Many environment-related public awareness programmes, covering renewable energy, are currently underway in the Cook Is. PIGGAREP will support these through the establishment of a information centre at the energy office, an annual award programme for the tourism industry and the functioning of a working group to set a standard for RE equipments in the Cook Islands.


 The PIGGAREP is implemented in a coordinated manner with related national and regional activities. The country team approach is used for coordinating activities at the national level while the CROP Energy Working Group is the forum for coordinating PIGGAREP activities with those of its members, such as theSecretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC), Pacific Power Association (PPA), University of the South Pacific (USP), Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS) and SPREP.

PIGGAREP has also fostered closer cooperation and collaboration on renewable energy initiatives in the region with other CROP Agencies and donor partners. This include the GEF‐funded Actions for the Development of Marshall Islands’ Renewable Energies ADMIRE), Palau’s Sustainable Economic Development through Renewable Energy Applications (SEDREA), Renewable Energy activities of PPA, SPC and USP, IUCN’s Energy, Ecosystems for Sustainable Livelihoods Initiative, the EU’s Support to the Energy Sector in Five ACP Pacific Island Countries (REP‐5), ADB’s Energy for All Initiative, the World Bank’s Energising the Pacific initiative, FAO’s Bio‐energy and Food Security effort and those of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP). These are all carried through a ‘whole of sector’ approach based on the concept of ‘Many Partners, One Strategy, One Policy and One Plan’ that the SPC, as the lead energy agency, is coordinating.




The climate change team is currently supporting member countries in wrapping up the Pacific Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project (PIGGAREP), which has been implementing approriate mitigation measures through renewable energy activities. The project was extended to include SIDS Dock initiatives, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) initiatives and energy efficiency as funds become available. Renewable Energy has become a priority issue at the national level and has been mainstreamed in national and sectoral policies, strategies, plans and/or roadmaps in most countries through the development of National Energy Policies and Sector Plans with greater emphasis on Renewable Energy setting targets reflecting their commitments to renewable energy development.   The implementation of these sector plans and roadmaps is through a coordinated and consultative approach at all levels and relevant sectors at the national level with technical assistance from SPREP and other partners.

 The Secretariat, through the PIGGAREP, has been instrumental in raising the profile of renewable energy in the PICs. With its software‐related focus, it has complemented bi‐lateral, regional and multilateral efforts involving renewable energy hardware in the region. These activities were carried out through targeted training workshops that address specific needs and current renewable energy developments of members, reviews and evaluation of renewable energy projects on the ground, conduct of resources monitoring and feasibility studies and the documentation and dissemination of best practices and lessons learnt from the renewable energy installations in and outside of the region.

SPREP is now focusing on assisting the region with follow-on activities from PIGGAREP through a variety of sources, including SIDS Dock as well as other opportunities. SPREP is aiming to support the region in the development and implementation of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA – link to NAMA guideline) and Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC).


The Pacific Island Countries (PICs) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the adverse effects of climate change - the very existence of some PICs is threatened by climate change. They also contribute the least to global emissions that cause climate change. 

While the PICs continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels and only 30% of the population on average has access to electricity, they at the same time have some of the highest renewable energy (RE) potential per capita.

RE can reduce the PICs' dependence on fossil fuel thereby reducing the growth rate of GHG emissions from fossil fuel use. In addition, it can provide cleaner, more reliable and cost-effective energy services that are needed for the sustainable development of the PICs. However, this has been hindered / constrained by many barriers.

The PIGGAREP is a product of a Global Environment Facility (GEF) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - funded preparatory exercise, the Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP). The PIREP was completed in 2006 and the implementation of the PIGGAREP commenced in 2007.

The global environment and development goal of PIGGAREP is the reduction of the growth rate of GHG emissions from fossil fuel use in the PICs through the removal of the barriers to the widespread and cost effective use of feasible RE technologies. The specific objective of the project is the promotion of the productive use of RE to reduce GHG emission by removing the major barriers to the widespread and cost-effective use of commercially viable RE technologies (RETs).

The PIGGAREP has completed six (6) of its 6.5 years of implementation and has led in Secretariat’s effort to support the renewable energy developments of member countries. The successful implementation of the PIGGAREP is estimated to reduce CO2 emissions by at least 30% by 2015 as compared to that in the Business as Usual scenario.

The PIGGAREP is funded by the Global Environment Facility and co-financing partners.  The UNDP Multi-country Office at Samoa is the Principal Project Representative while the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) is the Implementing Partner. The UNDP country offices in Samoa, Fiji and PNG as well as UNDP-GEF provide guidance to both the PB and the PMO.

 The overall direction and management of the PIGGAREP is by a Project Board (PB) comprising 3 representatives from UNDP including the Regional Technical Advisor, a representative of the SPREP Director, and 4 representatives (Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati and Nauri) from the 11 participating PICs. The PIGGAREP Project Manager acts as the Secretary to the Project Board.

 The PIGGAREP Project Management Office (PMO) at SPREP is responsible for the day-to-day project operation and financial management and reporting. The PMO is staffed by a Project Manager and the Climate Change Mitigation Officer.  The financial matters are handled by the Finance Division of SPREP

Click to view the list for PIGGAREP Project board members

Former Project Manager: Mr. Solomone Fifita

2007 to 2009



silia web
Current Project Manager: Ms Sili’a Kilepoa Ualesi

2011 to 2014


nixon web
Climate Change Mitigation Officer: Mr. Nixon Kua

2010 to 2014



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