PEIN Country Profile and Virtual Environment Library
Polynesia - Pacific (Oceania)
National Focal Points for Environment:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade
A country environmental analysis reveals a number of major environmental issues that need to be addressed in order to ensure sustainable development. Land and forest degradation continues, although at slower rates than in recent decades. New invasive species and diseases, combined with climate change, threaten to change Samoa’s remaining forest. Forest areas need careful management and protection to ensure that their diversity and condition are well maintained. Forested watersheds help filter rain to produce clean flowing rivers and underground aquifers, so their protection is important to ensuring access to safe water.
Unsustainable exploitation of living marine resources in many areas has threatened to undermine village nutrition and living standards. Uncontrolled sand mining has been a related concern because of the recent growth in construction activity.
There are high levels of solid waste generation and inadequate waste management practices. Sanitation is a long-standing problem facing Apia residents. Human waste is discharged to septic tanks, pit latrines, while for some commercial premises and Government facilities waste is discharged to small wastewater treatment plants. There is no monitoring of effluent water quality and there are no comprehensive effluent water quality standards in place.
Chemical contamination, though at low levels, is widespread. The Ozone Depletion Substances Licensing System in Samoa aims to completely remove ODS-based equipment and substances until phase-out, with consumption of CFC– based refrigerants falling from 4.624 metric tonnes in 1997 to 0.64 metric tonnes in 2000. Since POPs pesticides and PCBs are no longer permitted imports, intentional releases into the environment are not anticipated.
Human and livestock waste, industry-related pollution and, in some cases, pesticides and other agriculture chemicals threaten to contaminate quality water sources. While there is 100% access to water supply in different forms, the actual percentage of the population with access to ‘treated’ safe water supply was just over 52% in 2004 and was estimated to reach 68% at the end of 2006.
Addressing environmental issues lead to environmental sustainability . The loss of biodiversity due to deforestation, coral reef deterioration, habitat degradation and loss, and the introduction of certain non-indigenous species, is a concern. The International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP) listed Samoa as one of the world’s ‘Endemic Bird Areas’ that is in need of urgent conservation attention.
Samoa depends heavily on petroleum fuels and biomass for its energy needs. The current uses of those fuels tend to be highly inefficient. Carbon dioxide emissions have increased and increased use of biomass is having significant environmental impacts, while the development of hydro power is constrained by land access issues. The Initial National Green House Gas and Sink Inventory indicated the highest CO2 emissions coming from transportation, then commercial and institutional residential sources, and thirdly from energy and transformation industries.
Samoa is also subject to natural disasters, particularly cyclones. There were 12 events reported in the period 1950-2004 which, in the disaster years, affected an average of 42% of the population and inflicted economic losses equivalent to 45.6% of GDP.19 Estimated losses from cyclones Ofa in 1990 and Val in 1991 were US$140 million and US$300 million, respectively,20 while cyclone Heta in 2004 adversely affected agriculture. Vulnerability to natural disasters may increase in the future due to the effects of climate change. The vast majority of the population living on the coastal fringes of Upolu and Savai’i could experience increased coastal erosion, storm surges and inundation as the sea level rises, and the intensity of cyclones could well increase. In this event, disaster mitigation measures can be expected to become more urgent.
Government will promote the integration of the principles of sustainable development into policies, programs and projects, and has established this as a target for MDG Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability. The environment will feature prominently as a cross-cutting consideration in all planning activities, including the formulation of sector plans development projects. This aligns with the Pacific Plan’s priority area of sustainable development.
Environmental management, compliance and monitoring will be improved in 2008–2012, with the Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Meteorology (MNRE) the key implementing agency. The Planning and Urban Management Act 2004 aims to “implement a framework for planning the use, development, management and protection of land in Samoa in the present and long-term interests of all Samoans and for related purposes.” Under the Act, all development activities require development consent unless a sustainable management plan or regulations provide otherwise. This requirement will be enforced, and involves preparation of an Environmental Impact Assessment at the expense of the project proponent. The capacity of the Planning and Urban Management Agency to undertake or facilitate a greater level of community consultation will be strengthened. Strategic planning of urban development will also be developed.
Efforts to improve land conservation and management will focus on managing forest areas and undertaking carbon sink initiatives. Continual assessment of the state of forest protected areas in the country will be undertaken, forest resources on Savai’i will be conserved and national park management improved. Agro-forestry will be encouraged, bearing in mind that the general control over use of customary land rests with the village fono, and not with the central government. Village leaders and communities therefore must be involved in the formulation and implementation of conservation and regeneration activities.
In the area of waste management, strategies to reduce and better manage solid waste, chemical pollution and wastewater will be implemented. Management of landfills will be strengthened; and samples of POPs will be collected and exposure to contaminated sites in Samoa will be managed. Strategies for improving wastewater management are presented in Priority Area 1, Economic Infrastructure, and centre on phase 2 of the Sanitation and Drainage Project in Apia.
To improve water management and supply, MNRE will develop a programme for allocation and use of water resources, investigate groundwater and fresh water resources and pursue the integrated and sustainable management of underground water and watershed areas on the basis of data generated by the hydrological cycle observing system – underground water assessment.
In the area of biodiversity, the strategic focus will be on protection of natural areas and cosystems and areas outside conservation estates, and improved bio security. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan and the National Invasive Species Strategy provide the guidelines for these strategies.
Community-based conservation management will continue to be supported.
Renewable energy is one of the 5 strategic areas of the Samoa National Energy Policy 2007 discussed under Priority Area 1, Economic Infrastructure. Recent high oil prices and scientific research that suggests fossil fuel will be exhausted within the next century make the promotion and use of alternative energy sources a priority. This priority is reinforced by the fact that renewable energy sources are environmentally less damaging.
Hydropower and solar heating have proved successful in Samoa over the last 20 years and recent studies have tentatively concluded that other renewable energy sources have potential. The 2007 launching of a solar power project on Apolima Island confirms the potential of this source. The abundance of biomass due to a favourable tropical environment provides an energy source for domestic households especially. Wind speed is being monitored at different identified sites to provide the basis for assessing the potential of this source; and EPC has been exploring the prospects of supplementing conventional diesel with coconut oil for its diesel generators. Also, Samoa has participated in regional renewable energy projects such as a Biomass Resource Assessment coordinated by SOPAC; the Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project coordinated by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme; the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program coordinated by ADB, the Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement, co-financed by the ADB and the Government of Netherlands; and the Regional Energy Program on Poverty Reduction financed by the United Nations Development Programme. These regional programs associated with national level activities indicate Samoa’s willingness to explore and consolidate future opportunities in the area of renewable energy. The Research and Development Institute will need to capitalise on renewable energy research findings of these various donor funded projects so that they can be transformed and developed into viable renewable energy projects. Simultaneously, existing renewable energy sources such as hydropower power plants should be upgraded and expanded where feasible and will be done so under the Power sector expansion project co funded by the ADB, Japan, and Governments of Australia and Samoa
During SDS 2008–2012, a reduction of dependency on fossil fuels in favour of renewable energy sources will be encouraged through implementation of five strategies: (1) promoting the sustainable use of indigenous energy resources and renewable energy technologies; (2) promoting partnerships with communities and all energy stakeholders, especially development partners, in the development of renewable energy programmes in Samoa; (3) exploring training opportunities to build up capacity in renewable energy technologies; (4) encouraging the commercial use of renewable energy research findings of the Institute of Research and Development; and 5) enhancing public knowledge and understanding of renewable energy and its costs and benefits.
In the related area of climate change and disaster management, the government will implement the Disaster Management Act 2007 through programmes and projects to enable Samoa to make significant greenhouse gas reductions and natural and cultural disaster readiness. These will address renewable energy use, energy efficiencies, sustainable transport and public awareness of the importance of greenhouse gas abatement. Use of ozone-depleting substances will be phased out totally. The National Ozone Unit will work in close collaboration with the Customs Authority in controlling and monitoring imports of ozone depleting substance and ODS-based equipment to ensure that all imports are genuine.
Resilience to the adverse impacts of climate change will be addressed through continuation of work on coastal management and adaptation programs for vulnerable villages and other coastal locations and through such activities as promotion of energy efficient building design.
Adaptation Learning Mechanism [climate change adaptation] country profiles
Asian Development Bank Country Profiles and Strategies
Biodiversity Clearinghouse Mechanism websites
see also: Priority Sites for Conservation in Samoa: Key Biodiversity Areas [Conservation International] (2010)
Biosafety Profiles [CBD Biosafety Clearinghouse Mechanism]
Birdlife [Avifauna] Profiles
see also Species profiles [*For the Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable), each factsheet contains a summary account, range map and an illustration, plus additional data tables. For Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, Near Threatened, Least Concern and Data Deficient species, each contains a concise summary paragraph and some additional data tables.] [Birdlife International]
see also Endemic Bird Areas [EBAs] of the Pacific [incl. Aitutaki (secondary area) ; East Caroline Islands ; Fiji ; Gilbert Islands (secondary area) ; Henderson Island ; Mariana Islands ; Marquesas Islands ; Marshall Islands (secondary area) ; Nauru (secondary area) ; Niuafo‘ou (secondary area) ; Niue (secondary area) ; Northern Line Islands (secondary area) ; Palau ; Pitcairn (secondary area) ; Rapa (secondary area) ; Rimatara ; Rotuma (secondary area) ; Samoan Islands ; Society Islands ; Southern Cook Islands ; Tonga (secondary area) ; Tuamotu archipelago ; Wake Island (secondary area) ; Wallis and Futuna (secondary area) ; Yap Islands ] [Birdlife International]
see also Important bird areas of the Pacific [IBAs] (2010) [Birdlife Pacific]
* order the complete CD-ROM 'Important bird areas in the Pacific: a compendium' from theSPREP IRC
see also Pacific regional overview [Birdlife International]
see also Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) of Oceania [Birdlife International]
see also State of the World's birds website and report [Birdlife International] - including Pacific country case studies
Country Climate Profile [UNDP]
* Sourced from the Adaptation Learning Mechanism, a knowledge sharing platform developed by UNDP in partnership with the Global Environment Facility, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank, and the United Nations Environment Programme.
Earthtrends Thematic Country Profiles [WRI]
Agriculture and food, Biodiversity and protected areas, Climate and atmosphere, Coastal and marine ecosystems, Economics, business and the environment, Energy and resources,Environmental governance and institutions, Forests, grasslands and drylands, Population, health and human well-being, Water resources and freshwater ecosystems.
Ecoregion Profiles [World Wildlife Fund]
Tropical Moist Forests
Samoan archipelago [American Samoa, Samoa]
Environmental Vulnerability Index - Country Profiles [SOPAC / UNEP]
EU Pacific Country Environment Profiles
Samoa (2006; 509kb)
see also EU Country Partnership Profiles [incl. environment and EDF10 strategies]
Fishbase Biodiversity Country Profiles (all fish)
Fisheries Resources Profiles
Samoa (1995; 165mb)
Forestry Country Profiles
Forestry Department Country Profiles [FAO]
see also FAO Forest Resource Assessment : Country Reports 
Samoa (2010; 766kb)
see also FAO Forest Resources Assessments - Data collection for the Pacific region 
see also State of the World's Forests 2007: Asia and the Pacific [FAO] (2008; 1.77mb)
see also Tropical and subtropical forest profiles prepared by the World Wildlife Fund
see also Mongabay Rainforest profiles:
Global Biodiversity Information Forum [GBIF] Country Profiles
see also GBIF Google Earth Country Links
Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Profiles
Use the drop down menu to go to the individual profiles - includes GEF-4 Allocation and Utilization , Approved Projects and Projects Under Preparation
Integrated Water Resource Management Profiles [SOPAC]
Invasive Species : Country Profiles [ISSG]
Laws and legislation
see also 'Legislative reviews' in Country Reports (below)
Mangrove and Wetlands Profiles [ *from Proceedings of the Pacific Regional Workshop on Mangrove Wetlands Protection and Sustainable Use . SPREP, 2002.]
Samoa (2002; 675kb)
see also Mangroves of Samoa (2006; 13.56mb)
see also: A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania 
see also: Wetlands of the Pacific Island Region (2008; 882kb)
see also: IWMI Global Wetlands - Interactive Web Map Server - includes countries of Oceania
Marine Resource Profiles
State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
Reefbase Country Profiles (coral reefs, reef fish, biodiversity)
Status of Coral Reef Systems of the World: 2008 (2008; 20mb)
see also GIS data for corals in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and reef profile
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and ecosystem
MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database)
see also Millennium Coral Reef Mapping - South Pacific products
IMARS Geomorphological classification is publicly available on the University of South Florida web site from http://www.imars.usf.edu/MC/output_south_pacific.html . Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Tonga, Samoa, New Caledonia, Cook Is, French Polynesia and East Solomon are there (PNG will hopefully be coming shortly). Files are distributed as Shapefiles (ArcGIS) and can be opened in MapInfo.
Mapservers containing country level data on land utilisation, forestry, minerals etc.
Millenium Development Goals - Country Profiles
see also SPC's Millenium Development Goal summaries and in particular regional data for Goal 7 - Ensure environmental sustainability
The Natural History Guide to American Samoa [NPS]
Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum Country Data:
Pacific Regional information System - PRISM [SPC]
Environmental and Climate Statistics
Political Reviews [Contemporary Pacific]
see also: Protected Areas of the Pacific Islands profiles [UNEP / WCMC]
Maps of the Pacific Islands
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific - browse by country and ecosystem
see also MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database) above
SPREP Country Profiles: Exchange of Information by Members at SPREP Annual Meetings:
- Exchange of information by Members on National Developments related to Natural Resource Management Priority of the Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 6.1: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 18th SPREP Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 11th to 14th September 2007
- Exchange of information by Members on national developments related to Pollution Prevention priority of the SPREP Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 8.6: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the19th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia on 8–12 September 2008
- Exchange of Information by Members on National Developments Related to the Climate Change Focus Area of the SPREP Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 11.2: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 20th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 17 - 20 November 2009
- Exchange of Information by Members on Year of Biodiversity 
see Agenda Item 11.3: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 21st SPREP Meeting of Officials in Madang, Papua New Guinea on 6-10 September 2010
see also individual profiles for: Samoa
Sustainable Development Profiles (UN Agenda 21)
Threatened species: Summary of species on the 2008 IUCN Red List
UNEP Country Profiles [* poorly maintained and little information available]
see also "Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries" - country briefing papers (2003)
WHO Environmental Health Profiles
World Bank Environment indicators
World Factbook Country Profiles [CIA]
World Ocean Database 2005 [NOAA]
Geographically sorted data for the Pacific Ocean [datasets]
see also Environmental indicators: South Pacific (UNEP: 2004; 6.23mb)
see also Polynesia / Micronesia Biodiversity Hotspot Ecosystem Profile (2007; 1.16mb)
Access and benefit sharing and the protection of traditional knowledge
Samoa (2003; 1.86mb),
Barbados Programme of Action + 10 (BPoA)
National Assessment Reports: Samoa (2003; 242kb)
Pacific Environment Outlook (2005; 30.99mb)
The Conference on Small Island Developing States (Barbados Conference, 1994) highlighted the importance of island biodiversity as an ecological corridor linking major areas of biodiversity around the world. The conference called for international co-operation and partnership to support the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in their efforts to conserve, protect and restore their ecosystems. The Barbados Plan of Action recognizes the importance of the coastal zone as a source of subsistence and economic development.
Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF10]
Samoa (2008-2013; 2.6mb)
E-waste (electronic waste) - National reports and inventories
Samoa (2009; 1mb)
Least Developed Country [LCDs] reports
Samoa (2006?; 258kb)
see also 'Voices of the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific' (2005; 1.46mb)
Mauritius Strategy + 5 Review: National Assessment Reports [5-year Review of Progress Made in Addressing Vulnerabilities of Small Islands Developing States Through Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation (MSI) of the
Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) ]
Samoa (2010; 322kb)
Marine turtle legislative reviews:
Samoa (2010: 253kb) ,
National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation [UNCCD]
Samoa (2006; 23mb)
National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plans (NBSAP)
Samoa (2001; 754kb)
see also National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans: Pacific Regional Review (2007; 269kb)
National Biosafety Frameworks
Samoa (2004; 835kb)
see also National Reports on the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol
Samoa (1998; 92kb)
National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA)
Cross-cutting Analysis: Samoa (2006; 245kb)
Samoa (2007; 622kb)
NCSA Status (NCSA website)
National Disaster Management Plan
Samoa 2006-2009 (2006; 231kb)
National Environment Management Strategy (NEMS)
National Integrated Water Resource Management : Diagnostic Reports - drafts only [SOPAC]
Samoa (2007; 1.49mb)
National Invasive Species Strategy
Invasives reports: Samoa (2002; 689kb)
see also Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific region: national reports and directory of resources [GISP] (2002; 3.75mb)
see also Invasives Species on Pacific Islands [reports] - HEAR / PIER project website
ADB Reports: Samoa (2004; 252kb)
Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - reports, activities and PACC news updates
Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - report of in-country consultations
Samoa (2009; 128kb)
Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries - Country briefings
Samoa (2003; 357kb)
Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Country Reports (PIREP)
Samoa (2004; 1.42mb)
Regional overview report (2004; 2.59mb)
Peristant Organic Pollutants (POPs): Country Plans
Samoa (2003; 359kb)
National Implementation Plans
Samoa (2004; 2.12mb)
National Assessment Reports
Samoa (2004; 642kb)
Samoa (2004; 419kb)
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention, 1989), the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Rotterdam Convention, 1998) and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Stockholm Convention, 2001) together provide an international framework for the environmentally sound management of hazardous chemicals throughout their life cycles.
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: Country reports to the RAMSAR CoPs
National Reports submitted to the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (2008)
Samoa (2008; 178kb)
National Reports submitted to the 9th Meeting of the Contracting Parties (2005)
Samoa (2005; 756kb)
Climate Risk Profiles
Samoa (2006; 2.38mb)
Ships' Waste Management in Pacific Islands Ports: Country reports
Solid Waste Characterisation and Management Plans
Samoa (2000; 249kb)
State of the Environment Reports
Samoa 2012 Environmental Outlook: report card (18MB) - NEW!
Samoa (1993; 8.99mb) , Samoa - draft only -(2007 draft; 7.52mb) - Samoa (2006) released in hardcopy Sept. 2010 [MNRE]
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 1983 (UNEP: 1983; 1.66mb)
see also State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 2005 (2005; 382kb; see also ~http://www.unescap.org/esd/environment/soe/2005/mainpub/ ~)
see also Regional perspectives: Asia and the Pacific (UNEP, GEO-4. 2007; 382 kb)
see also the archive of SPREP Country Reports between 1980-1983 as follows:
Samoa (1980; 341kb)
United Nations. Common Country Assessments
Samoa (2002; 1.87mb)
see also United Nations. Development Assistance Frameworks 2003-2007:
Samoa (2002; 444kb)
United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)
National Reports: Samoa 1 (1998 ; 135kb), Samoa 2 (?; 275kb), Samoa 3 (2006 ; 3.22kb),Samoa 4 (2009; 2.73mb), Samoa - thematic report on forest ecosystems (2001; 155kb)
see also Country profiles compiled by the Secretariat for the UNCBD.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Land Degradation) (UNCCD)
First National Report: Samoa (2002; 2.36mb)
Third National Report: Samoa (2006 ; 342kb)
National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation
Samoa (2006; 23mb)
The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.
United Nations Development Programme Country Programme Action Plans [CPAP]:
Samoa (2008; 842kb)
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
(i) National Communications and In-depth Reviews
Samoa (1999; 784kb)
(ii) Second National Communications
Samoa (2008; 3.93mb)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC,1992) is concerned with global warming and the consequent rise in sea levels that may result in the flooding of coastal areas, and submerging islands, which could adversely affect coastal communities. The treaty aims at reducing emissions of greenhouse gas in order to combat global warming. Although the treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it did include provisions for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol.
World Summit on Sustainable Development [Rio+10 - Johannesburg 2002]
National Assessment Reports:
Samoa (2002; 429kb)
The WSSD Plan of Implementation calls for the management of the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner. In this regard, to reverse the current trend in natural resource degradation as soon as possible, it is necessary to implement strategies which should include targets adopted at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels to protect ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities.
The Johannesburg Declaration and the Plan of Implementation arising from the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD, 2002) reconfirmed the commitment of States to advance and strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development-economic development, social development and environmental protection-at the local, national, regional and global levels.
Reports available online from the SPREP Library and IRC database
Reports available online from SOPAC [Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission]
Reports available online from ReefBase Pacific
Environmental Reports and Publications - American and (western) Samoa
This is an index to the set of all known environmental reports and publications compiled by the American Samoa National Park Service's inventory and monitoring staff as of 2008.
Multimedia - posters, videos etc
In this episode of Pacific Pulse, Bernadette Nunn talks to villagers from Saoluafata on Samoas main island of Upolo about how theyre working together to tackle the global problem of climate change at a very local level.
Video: TOFIGA O PILI AAU - , [Community based climate change adaptation]
- Video features the initiatives of vulnerable communities to mitigate the impacts of climate change on their environment, livelihoods and infrastructure. The film was devised, planned, filmed, directed and in all other ways undertaken by a group of 12 community representatives during a workshop held in the villages of Fasito'otai and Fagamalo.
Samoa's Digital Library
- The National Park of American Samoa staff have compiled a bibliography (with pdf copies) of Environmental Literature of the Samoan Archipelago. An excellent resource.
see also: National Park of American Samoa website
Excellent resource site for both terrestrial and marine biodiversity of American Samoa.
see in particular 'The Natural History Guide to American Samoa' - comprehensive guide to the American Samoa's geology, geography and biota.
SPREP Library and IRC collection [SLIC] - includes online full text access to a wide range of Pacific environment materials.
The Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN] Virtual Library - full text publications from SPREP, SOPAC, SPC and other CROP agencies, Pacific govt. environment depts. , regional institutions, and NGOs active in the area of environment conservation.
SPREP's International Instruments' webpage
"International instruments relevant to SPREP's work in the areas of Sustainable Economic Development, Ecosystems Management, Climate Change, and Waste Management."
Academic literature and research