PEIN Country Profile and Virtual Environment Library
Polynesia - Pacific (Oceania)
National Focal Points for Environment:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade, Tourism, Environment and Labour
Tuvalu is ranked one of the most environmentally vulnerable states in the region, largely because of its low relief and small land area. The key risks confronting the environment in are:
sea level rise as a result of climate change; rising population density in Funafuti; decline in traditional resource management; unsustainable use of natural resources; poor waste management and pollution control.
Key Policy Objectives from 2005-2015
Stop unregulated development and degradation of the environment - especially on Funafuti. Increase the number of marine and terrestrial conservation areas. Minimise climate change impacts. Waste management is one of the most pressing problems and has direct implications for human and ecosystem health, especially in Funafuti. If collected and disposed of properly, this will lead to less potential pollution of lagoon waters and less accumulation of waste that is a latent source of disease and other public health issues.
Environmental management must confront two key challenges:
1) the numerous issues arising from the growing urbanisation of Funafuti, and
2) the national impacts associated with climate change and sea level rise, specifically salt-water inundation of pulaka pits, coastal erosion and flooding, which are blamed either wholly or partly
on global warming.
Priorities and strategies for the environment from 2005 to 2015.
Develop and implement an urban and waste management plan for Funafuti. Establish national climate change adaptation and mitigation policies. Encourage international adoption of Multilateral Environmental Agreements,
including the Kyoto Protocol. Increase the number of conservation areas and ensure regulatory compliance
Adaptation Learning Mechanism [climate change adaptation] country profiles
Asian Development Bank Country Profiles and Strategies
Biosafety Profiles [CBD Biosafety Clearinghouse Mechanism]
Birdlife [Avifauna] Profiles
see also Species profiles [*For the Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable), each factsheet contains a summary account, range map and an illustration, plus additional data tables. For Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, Near Threatened, Least Concern and Data Deficient species, each contains a concise summary paragraph and some additional data tables.] [Birdlife International]
see also Endemic Bird Areas [EBAs] of the Pacific [incl. Aitutaki (secondary area) ; East Caroline Islands ; Fiji ; Gilbert Islands (secondary area) ; Henderson Island ; Mariana Islands ; Marquesas Islands ; Marshall Islands (secondary area) ; Nauru (secondary area) ; Niuafo‘ou (secondary area) ; Niue (secondary area) ; Northern Line Islands (secondary area) ; Palau ; Pitcairn (secondary area) ; Rapa (secondary area) ; Rimatara ; Rotuma (secondary area) ; Samoan Islands ; Society Islands ; Southern Cook Islands ; Tonga (secondary area) ; Tuamotu archipelago ; Wake Island (secondary area) ; Wallis and Futuna (secondary area) ; Yap Islands ] [Birdlife International]
see also Important bird areas of the Pacific [IBAs] (2010) [Birdlife Pacific]
* order the complete CD-ROM 'Important bird areas in the Pacific: a compendium' from theSPREP IRC
see also Pacific regional overview [Birdlife International]
see also Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) of Oceania [Birdlife International]
see also State of the World's birds website and report [Birdlife International] - including Pacific country case studies
Country Climate Profile [UNDP]
* Sourced from the Adaptation Learning Mechanism, a knowledge sharing platform developed by UNDP in partnership with the Global Environment Facility, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank, and the United Nations Environment Programme.
Earthtrends Thematic Country Profiles [WRI]
Agriculture and food, Biodiversity and protected areas, Climate and atmosphere, Coastal and marine ecosystems, Economics, business and the environment, Energy and resources,Environmental governance and institutions, Forests, grasslands and drylands, Population, health and human well-being, Water resources and freshwater ecosystems.
Ecoregion Profiles [World Wildlife Fund]
Tropical Moist Forests
Western Polynesia [Tokelau, Tuvalu, Kiribati]
Environmental Vulnerability Index - Country Profiles [SOPAC / UNEP]
EU Pacific Country Environment Profiles
see also EU Country Partnership Profiles [incl. environment and EDF10 strategies]
Fishbase Biodiversity Country Profiles (all fish)
Forestry Country Profiles
Forestry Department Country Profiles [FAO]
see also FAO Forest Resource Assessment : Country Reports 
Tuvalu (2010; 71kb)
see also State of the World's Forests 2007: Asia and the Pacific [FAO] (2008; 1.77mb)
see also Tropical and subtropical forest profiles prepared by the World Wildlife Fund
see also Mongabay Rainforest profiles:
Global Biodiversity Information Forum [GBIF] Country Profiles
see also GBIF Google Earth Country Links
Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Profiles
Use the drop down menu to go to the individual profiles - includes GEF-4 Allocation and Utilization , Approved Projects and Projects Under Preparation
Integrated Water Resource Management Profiles [SOPAC]
Invasive Species : Country Profiles [ISSG]
Laws and legislation
see also 'Legislative reviews' in Country Reports (below)
Mangrove and Wetlands Profiles
see also: A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania 
see also: Wetlands of the Pacific Island Region (2008; 882kb)
see also: IWMI Global Wetlands - Interactive Web Map Server - includes countries of Oceania
Marine Resource Profiles
Reefbase Country Profiles (coral reefs, reef fish, biodiversity)
Status of Coral Reef Systems of the World: 2008 (2008; 20mb)
see also GIS data for corals in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and reef profile
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and ecosystem
MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database)
see also Millennium Coral Reef Mapping - South Pacific products
IMARS Geomorphological classification is publicly available on the University of South Florida web site from http://www.imars.usf.edu/MC/output_south_pacific.html . Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Tonga, Samoa, New Caledonia, Cook Is, French Polynesia and East Solomon are there (PNG will hopefully be coming shortly). Files are distributed as Shapefiles (ArcGIS) and can be opened in MapInfo.
Mapservers containing country level data on land utilisation, forestry, minerals etc.
Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum Country Data:
Pacific Regional information System - PRISM [SPC]
Environmental and Climate Statistics
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific - browse by country and ecosystem
see also MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database) above
SPREP Country Profiles: Exchange of Information by Members at SPREP Annual Meetings:
- Exchamge of information by Members on National Developments related to Natural Resource Management Priority of the Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 6.1: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 18th SPREP Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 11th to 14th September 2007
- Exchange of information by Members on national developments related to Pollution Prevention priority of the SPREP Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 8.6: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the19th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia on 8–12 September 2008
- Exchange of Information by Members on National Developments Related to the Climate Change Focus Area of the SPREP Action Plan 
see Agenda Item 11.2: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 20th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 17 - 20 November 2009
- Exchange of Information by Members on Year of Biodiversity 
see Agenda Item 11.3: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 21st SPREP Meeting of Officials in Madang, Papua New Guinea on 6-10 September 2010
see also individual profiles for: Wallis and Futuna
Sustainable Development Profiles (UN Agenda 21)
Threatened species: Summary of species on the 2008 IUCN Red List
UNEP Country Profiles [* poorly maintained and little information available]
WHO Environmental Health Profiles
World Factbook Country Profiles [CIA]
World Ocean Database 2005 [NOAA]
Geographically sorted data for the Pacific Ocean [datasets]
see also Environmental indicators: South Pacific (UNEP: 2004; 6.23mb)
see also Polynesia / Micronesia Biodiversity Hotspot Ecosystem Profile (2007; 1.16mb)
Barbados Programme of Action + 10 (BPoA)
National Assessment Reports:
Tuvalu (2003; 57kb)
Pacific Environment Outlook (2005; 30.99mb)
The Conference on Small Island Developing States (Barbados Conference, 1994) highlighted the importance of island biodiversity as an ecological corridor linking major areas of biodiversity around the world. The conference called for international co-operation and partnership to support the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in their efforts to conserve, protect and restore their ecosystems. The Barbados Plan of Action recognizes the importance of the coastal zone as a source of subsistence and economic development.
Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF9]
Tuvalu (2002-2007; 1.17mb)
Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF10]
Tuvalu (2008-2013; 2.98mb)
Least Developed Country [LCDs] reports
Tuvalu (2006?; 389kb)
see also 'Voices of the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific' (2005; 1.46mb)
Marine turtle legislative reviews:
Tuvalu (2010; 618kb)
Mauritius Strategy + 5 Review: National Assessment Reports [5-year Review of Progress Made in Addressing Vulnerabilities of Small Islands Developing States Through Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation (MSI) of the
Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) ]
Tuvalu (2010; 641kb)
Millenium Development Goals National Reports
Tuvalu (2006; 1.09mb)
Montreal Protocol: National Compliance Action Strategies to implement the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Tuvalu ( 111kb)
National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation [UNCCD]
Tuvalu (2006; 636kb)
National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA)
NCSA Status (NCSA website)
National Integrated Water Resource Management : Diagnostic Reports - drafts only [SOPAC]
Tuvalu (2007; 815kb)
National Invasive Species Strategy
see Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific region: national reports and directory of resources [GISP] (2002; 3.75mb)
see also Invasives Species on Pacific Islands [reports] - HEAR / PIER project website
National [Sustainable] Development Plans / Strategies [ForumSec]
Tuvalu : Tekakeega II 2005-2015 (2005; 1.36mb)
National Assessment Reports:
Tuvalu (2003; 826kb)
Tuvalu (2003; 325kb)
Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - reports, activities and PACC news updates
Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - report of in-country consultations
Tuvalu (2009; 116kb)
Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Country Reports (PIREP)
Tuvalu (2004; 1.81mb)
Regional overview report (2004; 2.59mb)
Peristant Organic Pollutants (POPs): Country Plans
Tuvalu (2003; 313kb)
National Implementation Plans (NIPs)
Tuvalu (2008; 1.2mb)
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention, 1989), the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Rotterdam Convention, 1998) and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Stockholm Convention, 2001) together provide an international framework for the environmentally sound management of hazardous chemicals throughout their life cycles.
Sea Level & Climate: their present state: Country reports
Tuvalu (2006; 2.14mb)
Ships' Waste Management in Pacific Islands Ports: Country reports
Solid Waste Characterisation and Management Plans
Tuvalu (2000; 240kb)
State of the Environment Reports
Tuvalu (1993; 9.2mb)
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 1983 (UNEP: 1983; 1.66mb)
see also State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 2005 (2005; 382kb; see also ~http://www.unescap.org/esd/environment/soe/2005/mainpub/ ~)
see also Regional perspectives: Asia and the Pacific (UNEP, GEO-4. 2007; 382 kb)
see also the archive of SPREP Country Reports between 1980-1983 as follows:
Tuvalu (1981; 589kb)
United Nations. Common Country Assessments
Tuvalu (2002; 828kb)
see also United Nations. Development Assistance Frameworks 2003-2007:
Tuvalu (2002; 464kb)
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED: Brazil, 1992)
Country Reports : Tuvalu (1992; 42mb)
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, 1992) and the Rio Declaration highlighted the need for sustainable development-socially responsible economic development that protects the resource base and the environment for the benefit of future generations. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, also highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)
National Reports: Tuvalu 4 (2009; 570kb)
see also Country profiles compiled by the Secretariat for the UNCBD.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Land Degradation) (UNCCD)
First National Reports:
Tuvalu (2000; 482kb)
Second National Reports:
Tuvalu (2002; 42kb)
National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation
Tuvalu (2006; 636kb)
The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
(i) National Communications and In-depth Reviews
Tuvalu (1999; 5.37mb),
(ii) National Action Plans on Adaptation (NAPA)
Tuvalu (2007; 2.2mb)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC,1992) is concerned with global warming and the consequent rise in sea levels that may result in the flooding of coastal areas, and submerging islands, which could adversely affect coastal communities. The treaty aims at reducing emissions of greenhouse gas in order to combat global warming. Although the treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it did include provisions for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol.
Reports available online from the SPREP Library and IRC database
Reports available online from SOPAC [Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission]
Reports available online from ReefBase Pacific
Vital Water NEW!
Vital Water is Tuvalu's portrayal of how they are looking for alternative ways to save what volume of rain water they can collect from the clouds for drinking. The current and accepted technologies we use today to support daily activities, for example, the use of flush toilets, does not work anymore for the small isolated and dry atoll country. Potable water is too precious to be wasted on such technologies. The most recent science on the future of Tuvalu's climate shows a grim future of long dry periods with no rain. The Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change project (PACC), presents to you here, the true reality in Tuvalu, and how the people are making changes to the way they live, not only to save water, but to save their future and their destiny.
Film: "Falevatia: a toilet for the future" (5 March 2012) NEW!
A new film released today that looks at the serious water issues facing Tuvalu and how the Global Environment Facility supported Pacific Integrated Water Resources Management project (GEF Pacific IWRM) is working to address these problems by installing composting toilets on the main island of Funafuti.Multimedia
- With photography by Robin Hammond of Panos Pictures, this multimedia piece looks at the island nation of Tuvalu, as the Tuvaluan people become some of the first environmental refugees, a direct result of man-made climate change.
- Tuvalu & Kiribati - Two of the smallest countries in the world, Tuvalu and Kiribati could become the first victims of global warming as these low-lying nations with ever increasing high tides are causing villagers to abandon their homes. With total land area of 26 sq km and a population of 12,000, this is one of the smallest countries in the world and its average elevation of two meters makes Tuvalu extremely vulnerable to storms and sea- level rise.
Alofa Tuvalu [climate change website]
SPREP Library and IRC collection [SLIC] - includes online full text access to a wide range of Pacific environment materials.
The Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN] Virtual Library - full text publications from SPREP, SOPAC, SPC and other CROP agencies, Pacific govt. environment depts. , regional institutions, and NGOs active in the area of environment conservation.
SPREP's International Instruments' webpage
"International instruments relevant to SPREP's work in the areas of Sustainable Economic Development, Ecosystems Management, Climate Change, and Waste Management."
Academic literature and research