Samoa Flag


Adaptation Learning Mechanism [climate change adaptation] country profiles

Asian Development Bank Country Profiles and Strategies

Biodiversity Clearinghouse Mechanism websites

see alsoPriority Sites for Conservation in Samoa: Key Biodiversity Areas [Conservation International] (2010)

Biosafety Profiles [CBD Biosafety Clearinghouse Mechanism]

Birdlife [Avifauna] Profiles

see also Avibase - Bird Checklists of the World - browsable by country and by individual island within the Pacific region - excellent data source 

see also a checklists of birds of FIJI, AMERICAN SAMOA, NIUE, SAMOA, TOKELAU, TONGA, TUVALU AND WALLIS & FUTUNA compiled by Dick Watling

see also Species profiles [*For the Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable), each factsheet contains a summary account, range map and an illustration, plus additional data tables. For Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, Near Threatened, Least Concern and Data Deficient species, each contains a concise summary paragraph and some additional data tables.] [Birdlife International]

see also Endemic Bird Areas [EBAs] of the Pacific [incl. Aitutaki (secondary area) ; East Caroline Islands ; Fiji ; Gilbert Islands (secondary area) ; Henderson Island ; Mariana Islands ; Marquesas Islands ; Marshall Islands (secondary area) ; Nauru (secondary area) ; Niuafo‘ou (secondary area) ; Niue (secondary area) ; Northern Line Islands (secondary area) ; Palau ; Pitcairn (secondary area) ; Rapa (secondary area) ; Rimatara ; Rotuma (secondary area) ; Samoan Islands ; Society Islands ; Southern Cook Islands ; Tonga (secondary area) ; Tuamotu archipelago ; Wake Island (secondary area) ; Wallis and Futuna (secondary area) ; Yap Islands ] [Birdlife International]

see also Important bird areas of the Pacific [IBAs] (2010) [Birdlife Pacific]

IBA Profiles: 

IBA Reports:

* order the complete CD-ROM 'Important bird areas in the Pacific: a compendium' from theSPREP IRC

see also Pacific regional overview [Birdlife International] 
see also Globally Threatened Birds (those evaluated as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) of Oceania [Birdlife International]
see also State of the World's birds website and report [Birdlife International] - including Pacific country case studies

Climate Risk Profile 
Samoa (2006; 754kb) / Samoa updated (2007; 421kb)

Country Climate Profile [UNDP]
* Sourced from the Adaptation Learning Mechanism, a knowledge sharing platform developed by UNDP in partnership with the Global Environment Facility, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank, and the United Nations Environment Programme.


Pacific Climate Change Portal (NEW)


Earthtrends Thematic Country Profiles [WRI]
Agriculture and food, Biodiversity and protected areas, Climate and atmosphere, Coastal and marine ecosystems, Economics, business and the environment, Energy and resources,Environmental governance and institutions, Forests, grasslands and drylands, Population, health and human well-beingWater resources and freshwater ecosystems.

Ecoregion Profiles [World Wildlife Fund]
Tropical Moist Forests
Samoan archipelago [American Samoa, Samoa]

Energy (NEW)
Clearn Energy Info Portal (REEGLE)

Environment Statistics - Country Snapshots [UN; 2009]

Environmental Vulnerability Index - Country Profiles [SOPAC / UNEP]

EU Pacific Country Environment Profiles
Samoa (2006; 509kb)

see also EU Country Partnership Profiles [incl. environment and EDF10 strategies]

FAO Country Profiles and Mapping Information System

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Country Profiles 

Fishbase Biodiversity Country Profiles (all fish)

Fisheries Resources Profiles
Samoa (1995; 165mb)

Forestry Country Profiles 
Forestry Department Country Profiles [FAO] 

see also FAO Forest Resource Assessment : Country Reports [2010]
Samoa (2010; 766kb)

see also FAO Forest Resources Assessments - Data collection for the Pacific region [2000]

see also State of the World's Forests 2007: Asia and the Pacific [FAO] (2008; 1.77mb)
see also Tropical and subtropical forest profiles prepared by the World Wildlife Fund

see also Mongabay Rainforest profiles:

Global Biodiversity Information Forum [GBIF] Country Profiles 

see also GBIF Google Earth Country Links

Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Profiles
Use the drop down menu to go to the individual profiles - includes GEF-4 Allocation and Utilization , Approved Projects and Projects Under Preparation

Integrated Water Resource Management Profiles [SOPAC]

Invasive Species : Country Profiles [ISSG]

Invasive Species Battlers Resource Base (NEW)

see also PIER reports on invasive species in Pacific islands:

Land-based pollutants inventory for the South Pacific region: Part 2: Regional summary and country profiles [SPREP] (1993; 19mb)

Laws and legislation

Pacific islands Environmental Laws [Commonwealth Secretariat]

SPREP National Laws and Legislation clearinghouse

see also 'Legislative reviews' in Country Reports (below)

Mangrove and Wetlands Profiles [ *from Proceedings of the Pacific Regional Workshop on Mangrove Wetlands Protection and Sustainable Use . SPREP, 2002.]
Samoa (2002; 675kb)

see also Mangroves of Samoa (2006; 13.56mb)
see also: A Directory of Wetlands in Oceania [1993]
see alsoWetlands of the Pacific Island Region (2008; 882kb)
see alsoIWMI Global Wetlands - Interactive Web Map Server - includes countries of Oceania 

Marine Resource Profiles

State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)

see also:

Reefbase Country Profiles (coral reefs, reef fish, biodiversity)

see also:

Status of Coral Reef Systems of the World: 2008 (2008; 20mb)

Chapter 12 - Status of the Coral Reefs in the South West Pacific: Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu (2008; 1.79mb)

see also GIS data for corals in the Pacific from Reefbase browse by country and reef profile
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific from Reefbase - browse by country and ecosystem

MPA Global Profiles (marine protected areas database)

see also Millennium Coral Reef Mapping - South Pacific products
IMARS Geomorphological classification is publicly available on the University of South Florida web site from . Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Tonga, Samoa, New Caledonia, Cook Is, French Polynesia and East Solomon are there (PNG will hopefully be coming shortly). Files are distributed as Shapefiles (ArcGIS) and can be opened in MapInfo.

Mapservers containing country level data on land utilisation, forestry, minerals etc.

Millenium Development Goals - Country Profiles
see also SPC's Millenium Development Goal summaries and in particular regional data for Goal 7 - Ensure environmental sustainability

National Communications Support Programme [Climate] Profiles [UNDP]

The Natural History Guide to American Samoa [NPS]
American Samoa

Pacific Biodiversity Information Forum Country Data:

Pacific Regional information System - PRISM [SPC]
Environmental and Climate Statistics 

Political Reviews [Contemporary Pacific]


Protected Areas

Pacific Islands Protected Areas Portal (NEW)

Protected Planet - Search the World Database on Protected Areas
Protected area profiles in Samoa

Reefbase GIS data for marine protected areas in Samoa
see also GIS data for marine protected areas in the Pacific - browse by country and ecosystem

Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade 

SPC Country Profiles:

SPREP Country Profiles: Exchange of Information by Members at SPREP Annual Meetings:
- Exchange of information by Members on National Developments related to Natural Resource Management Priority of the Action Plan [2007]

see Agenda Item 6.1: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 18th SPREP Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 11th to 14th September 2007

- Exchange of information by Members on national developments related to Pollution Prevention priority of the SPREP Action Plan [2008]
see Agenda Item 8.6: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the19th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia on 8–12 September 2008

- Exchange of Information by Members on National Developments Related to the Climate Change Focus Area of the SPREP Action Plan [2009]
see Agenda Item 11.2: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 20th SPREP Annual Meeting of Officials in Apia, Samoa on 17 - 20 November 2009

- Exchange of Information by Members on Year of Biodiversity [2010]
see Agenda Item 11.3: Country Profiles of the Report and record of the 21st SPREP Meeting of Officials in Madang, Papua New Guinea on 6-10 September 2010
see also individual profiles for: Samoa

Sustainable Development Profiles (UN Agenda 21)

Threatened species: Summary of species on the 2008 IUCN Red List

UNCCD Country Profiles:

UNEP Country Profiles [* poorly maintained and little information available]

Water Resource Profiles [SOPAC - Pacific water -]

see also "Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries" - country briefing papers (2003)

WHO Environmental Health Profiles 

World Bank Country Profiles [country summary / statistics]
Samoa / Samoa

World Bank Environment indicators

World Factbook Country Profiles [CIA]

World Ocean Database 2005 [NOAA]
Geographically sorted data for the Pacific Ocean [datasets]

see also Environmental indicators: South Pacific (UNEP: 2004; 6.23mb)
see also Polynesia / Micronesia Biodiversity Hotspot Ecosystem Profile (2007; 1.16mb)

see also Paciifc Biodiversity Information Forum website and databases

Access and benefit sharing and the protection of traditional knowledge
Samoa (2003; 1.86mb),

Asian Development Bank Country Environmental Analysis Reports
Samoa (2006; 1.27mb) and Samoa climate risk profile (2006; 2.38mb)

Barbados Programme of Action + 10 (BPoA) 
National Assessment Reports: Samoa (2003; 242kb)

Pacific Environment Outlook (2005; 30.99mb)

The Conference on Small Island Developing States (Barbados Conference, 1994) highlighted the importance of island biodiversity as an ecological corridor linking major areas of biodiversity around the world. The conference called for international co-operation and partnership to support the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in their efforts to conserve, protect and restore their ecosystems. The Barbados Plan of Action recognizes the importance of the coastal zone as a source of subsistence and economic development.

Coastal Management Adaptation to Climate Change using Ecosystem-based Adaptation Strategies
Samoa (2014) NEW

Country Strategy Papers and National Indicative Programmes [European Union - EDF10]

Samoa (2008-2013; 2.6mb)

E-waste (electronic waste) - National reports and inventories
Samoa (2009; 1mb)

GEF Country Portfolio Evaluations
Samoa :1992-2007 (2007; 82kb) and Management response (2007; 132kb)

Least Developed Country [LCDs] reports
Samoa (2006?; 258kb)

see also 'Voices of the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific' (2005; 1.46mb)

Legislative Reviews 
Samoa (1993; 3.56mb) , Samoa (2004; 164kb)

Mauritius Strategy + 5 Review: National Assessment Reports [5-year Review of Progress Made in Addressing Vulnerabilities of Small Islands Developing States Through Implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Further Implementation (MSI) of the
Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) ] 

Samoa (2010; 322kb)

see also:

Marine turtle legislative reviews:
Samoa (2010: 253kb) ,

National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation [UNCCD]
Samoa (2006; 23mb)

National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plans (NBSAP)
Samoa (2001; 754kb)

see also National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans: Pacific Regional Review (2007; 269kb)

National Biosafety Frameworks
Samoa (2004; 835kb)

see also National Reports on the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol
Samoa (1998; 92kb)

National Capacity Self Assessment (NCSA)

Thematic Assessment Reports:
Biodiversity: Samoa (2006; 3.52mb) 
Land degradation: Samoa (2006; 848kb)
Climate change: Samoa (2006; 472kb)

Cross-cutting Analysis: Samoa (2006; 245kb)

Action Plans:
Samoa (2007; 622kb)

NCSA Status (NCSA website)

National Disaster Management Plan
Samoa 2006-2009 (2006; 231kb)

National Environment Management Strategy (NEMS) 
Samoa(1993; 9.87mb)

National Integrated Water Resource Management : Diagnostic Reports - drafts only [SOPAC]
Samoa (2007; 1.49mb)

National Invasive Species Strategy

Invasives reports: Samoa (2002; 689kb)

Action plan: Samoa 2004-2007 (2007; 411kb), Samoa 2008-2011 (2010; 3.5mb)

Invasives reports: American Samoa (2000; 215 kb), Commonwealth of the Northern

see also Invasive alien species in the Austral-Pacific region: national reports and directory of resources [GISP] (2002; 3.75mb)

see also Invasives Species on Pacific Islands [reports] - HEAR / PIER project website

National [Sustainable] Development Plans / Strategies [ForumSec]
Samoa 2005 - 2007 (2005; 605kb),Samoa 2008 - 2012 (2008; 608kb)

ADB Reports: Samoa (2004; 252kb)

Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - reports, activities and PACC news updates

Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change [PACC] - report of in-country consultations 
Samoa (2009; 128kb)

Pacific Regional Consultation on Water in Small Island Countries - Country briefings
Samoa (2003; 357kb)

Pacific Regional Energy Assessment: Country Reports (PIREP) 
Samoa (2004; 1.42mb)

Regional overview report (2004; 2.59mb)

Peristant Organic Pollutants (POPs): Country Plans
Samoa (2003; 359kb)

National Implementation Plans
Samoa (2004; 2.12mb)

National Assessment Reports 
Samoa (2004; 642kb)

National inventories
Samoa (2004; 419kb)

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention, 1989), the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Rotterdam Convention, 1998) and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) (Stockholm Convention, 2001) together provide an international framework for the environmentally sound management of hazardous chemicals throughout their life cycles.

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: Country reports to the RAMSAR CoPs
National Reports submitted to the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (2008)
Samoa (2008; 178kb)

National Reports submitted to the 9th Meeting of the Contracting Parties (2005) 
Samoa (2005; 756kb)

Sea Level & Climate: their present state: Country reports
Samoa (2006; 2.07mb)

see also:

Climate Risk Profiles
Samoa (2006; 2.38mb)

Ships' Waste Management in Pacific Islands Ports: Country reports

Solid Waste Characterisation and Management Plans
Samoa (2000; 249kb)

State of the Environment Reports
Samoa 2013 NEW!
Samoa 2012 Environmental Outlook: report card (18MB) 
Samoa 1993; Samoa - draft only -(2007 draft; 7.52mb) - Samoa (2006) released in hardcopy Sept. 2010 [MNRE]

see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 1983 (UNEP: 1983; 1.66mb)
see also State of the marine environment in the South Pacific Region (1990; 3.48mb)
see also State of the Environment of the South Pacific 2005 (2005; 382kb; see also ~ ~) 
see also Regional perspectives: Asia and the Pacific (UNEP, GEO-4. 2007; 382 kb)

see also the archive of SPREP Country Reports between 1980-1983 as follows:
Samoa (1980; 341kb)

United Nations. Common Country Assessments
Samoa (2002; 1.87mb)

see also United Nations. Development Assistance Frameworks 2003-2007:
Samoa (2002; 444kb)

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)
National Reports: Samoa 1 (1998 ; 135kb), Samoa 2 (?; 275kb), Samoa 3 (2006 ; 3.22kb),Samoa 4 (2009; 2.73mb)Samoa - thematic report on forest ecosystems (2001; 155kb)

see also Country profiles compiled by the Secretariat for the UNCBD.

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which was one of the outcome instruments of the UNCED process, highlights the need for conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Land Degradation) (UNCCD)
First National Report: Samoa (2002; 2.36mb)

Third National Report: Samoa (2006 ; 342kb)

National Action Programmes (NAP) to combat land degradation 
Samoa (2006; 23mb)

see also UNCCD Country Profiles:

see also UNCCD Reports clearinghouse mechanism

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.

United Nations Development Programme Country Programme Action Plans [CPAP]: 
Samoa (2008; 842kb)

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
(i) National Communications and In-depth Reviews
Samoa (1999; 784kb)

(ii) Second National Communications
Samoa (2008; 3.93mb)

(ii) National Action Plans on Adaptation (NAPA) 
Samoa (2005; 473kb), Synthesis Report (2004; 1.93mb) and framework (2004; 402kb)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC,1992) is concerned with global warming and the consequent rise in sea levels that may result in the flooding of coastal areas, and submerging islands, which could adversely affect coastal communities. The treaty aims at reducing emissions of greenhouse gas in order to combat global warming. Although the treaty as originally framed set no mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual nations and contained no enforcement provisions; it did include provisions for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol.

World Summit on Sustainable Development [Rio+10 - Johannesburg 2002]

National Assessment Reports: 
Samoa (2002; 429kb)

Pacific WSSD Regional Assessment (2002; 91kb) and Pacific Position Paper (2004; 91kb)
see also: Synthesis Report for Asia and the Pacific (2001; 1.22mb)

The WSSD Plan of Implementation calls for the management of the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner. In this regard, to reverse the current trend in natural resource degradation as soon as possible, it is necessary to implement strategies which should include targets adopted at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels to protect ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities.

The Johannesburg Declaration and the Plan of Implementation arising from the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD, 2002) reconfirmed the commitment of States to advance and strengthen the interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development-economic development, social development and environmental protection-at the local, national, regional and global levels.

Reports available online from the SPREP Library and IRC database
Reports available online from SOPAC [Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission] 
Reports available online from ReefBase Pacific

see also

Environmental Reports and Publications - American and (western) Samoa 
This is an index to the set of all known environmental reports and publications compiled by the American Samoa National Park Service's inventory and monitoring staff as of 2008.

search also SPC Coastal and Oceanic Fisheries Digital Library

Poster: Some common reef fish of Samoa [SPC] 
Poster: Most common bottomfish of Samoa [SPC]

Pacific Pulse - talking climate change in Samoa 
In this episode of Pacific Pulse, Bernadette Nunn talks to villagers from Saoluafata on Samoas main island of Upolo about how theyre working together to tackle the global problem of climate change at a very local level.

Video: TOFIGA O PILI AAU - Part 1 Part 2 [Community based climate change adaptation]
- Video features the initiatives of vulnerable communities to mitigate the impacts of climate change on their environment, livelihoods and infrastructure. The film was devised, planned, filmed, directed and in all other ways undertaken by a group of 12 community representatives during a workshop held in the villages of Fasito'otai and Fagamalo. 

Samoa's Digital Library 
- The National Park of American Samoa staff have compiled a bibliography (with pdf copies) of Environmental Literature of the Samoan Archipelago. An excellent resource.

see also: National Park of American Samoa website
Excellent resource site for both terrestrial and marine biodiversity of American Samoa. 
see in particular 'The Natural History Guide to American Samoa' - comprehensive guide to the American Samoa's geology, geography and biota.

Samoa - Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Samoa - Meteorological Office

see also:

The Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN] Regional Frameworks and Strategies Directory [SPREP]

SPREP Library and IRC collection [SLIC] - includes online full text access to a wide range of Pacific environment materials.

The Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN] Virtual Library - full text publications from SPREP, SOPAC, SPC and other CROP agencies, Pacific govt. environment depts. , regional institutions, and NGOs active in the area of environment conservation.

Pacific Environment Databases and Recommended Internet Resources

see also:

SPREP's International Instruments' webpage
"International instruments relevant to SPREP's work in the areas of Sustainable Economic Development, Ecosystems Management, Climate Change, and Waste Management."

Academic literature and research

via Google Scholar